Effect of cranberry juice deacidification on its antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens and its anti-inflammatory properties in an oral epithelial cell model.
Cranberries are widely recognized as a functional food that can promote oral health. However, the high concentration of organic acids in cranberry juice can cause tooth enamel erosion. Electrodialysis with bipolar membrane (EDBM) is a process used for the deacidification of cranberry juice. The present study investigated whether the removal of organic acids (0%, 19%, 42%, 60%, and 79%) from cranberry juice by EDBM affects its antibacterial activity against major periodontopathogens as well as its anti-inflammatory properties in an oral epithelial cell model. A deacidification rate 60% attenuated the bactericidal effect against planktonic and biofilm-embedded Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans but had no impact on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Cranberry juice increased the adherence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. gingivalis to oral epithelial cells, but reduced the adherence of F. nucleatum by half regardless of the deacidification rate. F. nucleatum produced more hydrogen sulfide when it was exposed to deacidified cranberry juice with a deacidification rate 42% compared to the raw beverage. Interestingly, the removal of organic acids from cranberry juice lowered the cytotoxicity of the beverage for oral epithelial cells. Deacidification attenuated the anti-inflammatory effect of cranberry juice in an in vitro oral epithelial cell model. The secretion of IL-6 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated oral epithelial cells exposed to cranberry juice increased proportionally with the deacidification rate. No such effect was observed with respect to the production of IL-8. This study provided evidence that organic acids, just like phenolic compounds, might contribute to the health benefits of cranberry juice against periodontitis.