Fractionation of extracts from black chokeberry, cranberry, and pomegranate to identify compounds that influence lipid metabolism.
Polyphenols show a spectrum of bioactive effects, including an influence on lipid metabolism. In this study, we performed activity-guided fractionations of black chokeberry (aronia), cranberry, and pomegranate extracts to identify the biologically active compounds. The extracts were prepared from fruit juice concentrates with the adsorbent resin Amberlite XAD-7 and were separated into a copigment and an anthocyanin fraction, followed by fractionation into a polymer and monomeric fraction by means of hexane precipitation. For further fractionation of the cranberry and pomegranate copigment fractions, high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC) was used. The compounds in each fraction were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS), and the quantification was performed by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD) analyses. Each of the (sub-)fractions was tested in three in vitro assays: phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE) activity, lipid accumulation, and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. The results showed that various fractions and subfractions can inhibit lipid accumulation and PDE activity as well as increase lipolysis, particularly copigments. Overall, our results indicate an influence of polyphenol-rich (sub-)fractions on the lipid metabolism.