Cranberry Arabino-Xyloglucan and Pectic Oligosaccharides Induce Lactobacillus Growth and Short-Chain Fatty Acid Production
Numerous health benefits have been reported from the consumption of cranberry-derived products, and recent studies have identified bioactive polysaccharides and oligosaccharides from cranberry pomace. This study aimed to further characterize xyloglucan and pectic oligosaccharide structures from pectinase-treated cranberry pomace and measure the growth and short-chain fatty acid production of 86 Lactobacillus strains using a cranberry oligosaccharide fraction as the carbon source. In addition to arabino-xyloglucan structures, cranberry oligosaccharides included pectic rhamnogalacturonan I which was methyl-esterified, acetylated and contained arabino-galacto-oligosaccharide side chains and a 4,5-unsaturated function at the non-reducing end. When grown on cranberry oligosaccharides, ten Lactobacillus strains reached a final culture density (Delta OD) >= 0.50 after 24 h incubation at 32 degrees C, which was comparable to L. plantarum ATCC BAA 793. All strains produced lactic, acetic, and propionic acids, and all but three strains produced butyric acid. This study demonstrated that the ability to metabolize cranberry oligosaccharides is Lactobacillus strain specific, with some strains having the potential to be probiotics, and for the first time showed these ten strains were capable of growth on this carbon source. The novel cranberry pectic and arabino-xyloglucan oligosaccharide structures reported here combined with the Lactobacillus strains that can metabolize cranberry oligosaccharides and produce short-chain fatty acids, have excellent potential as health-promoting synbiotics.