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Addition of Bacitracin and Cranberry to Standard Foley Care Reduces Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

Posted: March 1, 2017
Authors: Sorour K, Nuzzo E, Tuttle M, Naidus E, Donovan LM, Bekhit M, Myers T, Malacaria B, Ryan S, Sorour O, Brown R
Journal: Canadian Journal of Infection Control. 2016 Sep 1;31(3)

Abstract: Background: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) represent over 30% of hospital-acquired infections with an annual incidence of 560,000 CAUTIs per year in the United States. An estimated 13,000 deaths are attributable to CAUTIs annually. Standard prevention strategies frequently fail to eliminate CAUTI in intensive care units. The effectiveness of a hospital-based program of cranberry products (CP) and meatal antimicrobials to prevent CAUTI in a heterogeneous ICU population has not been evaluated. Methods: Data of Foley days and incidence of CAUTI in the Critical Care Unit (CCU) and the general wards (GW) in a single 245-bed suburban medical center were collected as a part of routine infection control surveillance. Standard CAUTI prevention bundles were applied throughout the hospital in 2009. In May 2012 an intervention of applying Bacitracin ointment to the urinary meatus-Foley junction and oral cranberry juice or tablets was started only in the CCU. A retrospective review of the data collected before and after the intervention in both the GW and CCU was completed. Results: Prior to the QI intervention in May 2012, average CAUTI rates were 2.8 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days (CI 0.26-1.89) in the CCU and 1.6 CAUTIs per 1000 catheter days (CI 0.71-4.97) on the GW (p = 0.28). After the intervention, the average number of CAUTIs/1000 days in the CCU was 0, which was significantly different from the average of 1.52 CAUTIs/1000 days (CI 0.78-2.26) on the GW (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our data indicate that the addition of cranberry-containing products and antimicrobial meatal care may further reduce incidence of CAUTI when added to standard recommendations. Further research will be necessary to determine if these interventions could be effective in a wider population.

Cranberry Intervention in Patients with Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy. Clinical, Pathological, and Laboratory Findings

Posted: March 1, 2017
Authors: Student V, Vidlar A, Bouchal J, Vrbkova J, Kolar Z, Kral M, Kosina P, Vostalova J
Journal: Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub 160(4):559-565

Abstract: Background and Objectives. Recently, we described an inverse association between cranberry supplementation and serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) in patients with negative biopsy for prostate cancer (PCa) and chronic nonbacterial prostatitis. This double blind placebo controlled study evaluates the effects of cranberry consumption on PSA values and other markers in men with PCa before radical prostatectomy. Methods: Prior to surgery, 64 patients with prostate cancer were randomized to a cranberry or placebo group. The cranberry group (n=32) received a mean 30 days of 1500 mg cranberry fruit powder. The control group (n=32) took a similar amount of placebo. Selected blood/urine markers as well as free and total phenolics in urine were measured at baseline and on the day of surgery in both groups. Prostate tissue markers were evaluated after surgery. Results: The serum PSA significantly decreased by 22.5% in the cranberry arm (n=31, P<0.05). A trend to down-regulation of urinary beta-microseminoprotein (MSMB) and serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, as well as upregulation of IGF-1 was found after cranberry supplementation. There were no changes in prostate tissue markers or, composition and concentration of phenolics in urine. Conclusions: Daily consumption of a powdered cranberry fruit lowered serum PSA in patients with prostate cancer. The whole fruit contains constituents that may regulate the expression of androgen-responsive genes.

Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria Among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Posted: March 1, 2017
Authors: Juthani-Mehta M, Van Ness PH, Bianco L, Rink A, Rubeck S, Ginter S, Argraves S, Charpentier P, Acampora D, Trentalange M, Quagliarello V
Journal: JAMA 316(18):1879-87.


Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes.Cranberry capsules are an understudied, nonantimicrobial prevention strategy used in this population. Objective:To test the effect of 2 oral cranberry capsules once a day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes.Design, Setting, and Participants:Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and involving 185 English-speaking women aged 65 years or older, with or without bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline, residing in 21 nursing homes located within 50 miles (80 km) of New Haven, Connecticut (August 24, 2012-October 26, 2015).Interventions:Two oral cranberry capsules, each capsule containing 36 mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (ie, 72 mg total, equivalent to 20 ounces of cranberry juice) vs placebo administered once a day in 92 treatment and 93 control group participants.Main Outcomes and Measures:Presence of bacteriuria (ie, at least 105 colony-forming units [CFUs] per milliliter of 1 or 2 microorganisms in urine culture) plus pyuria (ie, any number of white blood cells on urinalysis) assessed every 2 months over the 1-year study surveillance; any positive finding was considered to meet the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, all multidrug antibiotic-resistant organisms, antibiotics administered for suspected UTI, and total antimicrobial administration.Results:Of the 185 randomized study participants (mean age, 86.4 years [SD, 8.2], 90.3% white, 31.4% with bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline), 147 completed the study. Overall adherence was 80.1%. Unadjusted results showed the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in 25.5% (95% CI, 18.6%-33.9%) of the treatment group and in 29.5% (95% CI, 22.2%-37.9%) of the control group. The adjusted generalized estimating equations model that accounted for missing data and covariates showed no significant difference in the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria between the treatment group vs the control group (29.1% vs 29.0%; OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.61-1.66; P = .98). There were no significant differences in number of symptomatic UTIs (10 episodes in the treatment group vs 12 in the control group), rates of death (17 vs 16 deaths; 20.4 vs 19.1 deaths/100 person-years; rate ratio [RR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.54-2.12), hospitalization (33 vs 50 admissions; 39.7 vs 59.6 hospitalizations/100 person-years; RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.32-1.40), bacteriuria associated with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli (9 vs 24 episodes; 10.8 vs 28.6 episodes/100 person-years; RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.10-1.46), antibiotics administered for suspected UTIs (692 vs 909 antibiotic days; 8.3 vs 10.8 antibiotic days/person-year; RR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.44-1.33), or total antimicrobial utilization (1415 vs 1883 antimicrobial days; 17.0 vs 22.4 antimicrobial days/person-year; RR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.46-1.25).Conclusions and Relevance:Among older women residing in nursing homes, administration of cranberry capsules vs placebo resulted in no significant difference in presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria over 1 year.Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01691430.

Please see this link for the Cranberry Institute's official statement regarding this research: http://www.cranberryinstitute.org/HCP/cranutiresponse.html

Supplementation with High Titer Cranberry Extract (Anthocran®) for the Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Elderly Mensuffering from Moderate Prostatic Hyperplasia: a Pilot Study

Posted: March 1, 2017
Authors: Ledda A, Belcaro G, Dugall M, Feragalli B, Riva A, Togni S, Giacomelli L
Journal: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 20(24):5205-5209

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Recently, cranberry extracts have been tested as a nutritional supplementation in the prevention of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) as well as recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in subjects at risk, with mixed results. However, evidence of efficacy should be considered only for well-characterized and standardized products in a more selected study population. Moreover, the efficacy of these interventions in elderly must be further investigated. The aim of this pilot, registry study was to evaluate the prophylactic effects of an oral supplementation containing a highly concentrated and standardized cranberry extract reproducing the natural total profile of cranberry fruits, in elderly men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), suffering from recurrent UTIs, over a 2-months follow-up.PATIENTS AND METHODS: 43 men (age > 65 years) enrolled in this study freely decided to receive either a standard management (SM) only (n = 21) or SM associated with an oral supplementation (n = 23). Supplementation consisted in a daily administration of one capsule containing cranberry extract (Anthocran®) for 60 consecutive days. The clinical effectiveness in the prevention of UTIs was determined by the number of UTIs in the two months before the inclusion in the registry and during the supplementation period, and the number of symptom-free subjects during the registry period. Safety considerations were also performed.RESULTS: In the supplemented group, the mean number of UTI episodes reported during the registry (0.8 ± 0.5) significantly decreased compared with inclusion time (3.2 ± 1.3), p-value = 0.0001. No significant changes were observed in control, SM-only group. Importantly, the cranberry oral supplementation was superior over SM at reducing the mean number of UTIs (p-value = 0.0062).CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cranberry supplementation could be an effective and safe approach, within an SM program, for the prevention of recurrent UTIs in elderly men suffering from BPH avoiding some antibiotic treatments.

Effect of oral cranberry extract (standardized proanthocyanidin-A) in patients with recurrent UTI by pathogenic E. coli: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical research study.

Posted: August 22, 2016
Authors: Singh I; Gautam LK; Kaur IR.
Journal: International Urology & Nephrology. , 2016 Jun 17

Abstract: PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of cranberry extract (PAC-A ~ proanthocyanidin-A) on the in vitro bacterial properties of uropathogenic (E. coli) and its efficacy/tolerability in patients with subclinical or uncomplicated recurrent UTI (r-UTI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: After obtaining clearance from the ethics committee and administering a written informed consent, 72 patients with r-UTI were enrolled as per protocol (November 2011 to March 2013) in this prospective study, to randomly receive (PAC-A: group I, 36) or (placebo: group II, 36), for 12 weeks. Any change/reduction in the incidence of r-UTI at 12 weeks was construed to be the primary endpoint of this study. RESULTS: After 12 weeks, bacterial adhesion scoring decreased (0.28)/(2.14) in group I/II (p < 0.001); 32/36 (88.8 %) and 2/36 (5.5 %) in groups I and II, respectively, turned MRHA negative (p < 0.001); biofilm (p < 0.01) and bacterial growth (p < 0.001) decreased in group I; microscopic pyuria score was 0.36/2.0 in group I/II (p < 0.001); r-UTI decreased to 33.33 versus 88.89 % in group I/II (p < 0.001); mean subjective dysuria score was 0.19 versus 1.47 in group I/II (p < 0.001), while mean urine pH was 5.88 versus 6.30 in group I/II (p < 0.001). No in vitro antibacterial activity of cranberry could be demonstrated, and no adverse events were noted. CONCLUSIONS: The overall efficacy and tolerability of standardized cranberry extract containing (PAC-A) as a food supplement were superior to placebo in terms of reduced bacterial adhesion; bacterial MRHA negativity; urine pH reduction; and in preventing r-UTI (dysuria, bacteriuria and pyuria). Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to elucidate the precise role, exact dose and optimal duration of PAC-A therapy in patients at risk of r-UTI.

Effectiveness of a Combination of Cranberries, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Vitamin C for the Management of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in Women: Results of a Pilot Study.

Posted: August 22, 2016
Authors: Montorsi F; Gandaglia G; Salonia A; Briganti A; Mirone V.
Journal: European Urology. , 2016 Jun 7

Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in women and many patients with recurrent UTIs do not eradicate the condition albeit being treated with multiple courses of antibiotics. The use of nutritional supplements might reduce the risk of recurrent UTIs. However, the role of supplements taken as single agents appears to be limited. We hypothesized that a combination of cranberries, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and vitamin C might produce a clinical benefit due to their additive or synergistic effects. We prospectively enrolled 42 consecutive women with recurrent UTIs treated with 120mg cranberries (minimum proanthocyanidin content: 32mg), 1 billion heat-killed L. rhamnosus SGL06, and 750mg vitamin C thrice daily for 20 consecutive d. Patients were advised to stop taking these supplements for 10 d and then to repeat the whole cycle three times. Patients were contacted three mo and six mo following the end of the administration of these supplements and evaluated with a semistructured interview and urinalysis. Responders were defined as the absence of symptoms and negative urinalysis or urine culture. Follow-up data were available for 36 patients. Overall, 26 (72.2%) and 22 patients (61.1%) were responders at the 3-mo and 6-month follow-up. No major side effects were recorded. The administration of cranberries, L. rhamnosus, and vitamin C might represent a safe and effective option in women with recurrent UTIs.

Prevention of urinary tract infection with OximacroReg., a cranberry extract with a high content of A-type proanthocyanidins: a pre-clinical double-blind controlled study.

Posted: August 22, 2016
Authors: Occhipinti, A. Germano, A. Maffei, M. E.
Journal: Urology Journal; 2016. 13(2):2640-2649.

Abstract: Purpose: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are widespread and affect a large portion of the human population. Cranberry juices and extracts have been used for UTI prevention due to their content of bioactive proanthocyanidins (PACs), particularly of the A type (PAC-A). Controversial clinical results obtained with cranberry are often due to a lack of precise determination and authentication of the PAC-A content. This study used OximacroReg. (Biosfered S.r.l., Turin, Italy), a cranberry extract with a high content of PAC-A, to prevent UTIs in female and male volunteers. Materials and Methods: The OximacroReg. PACs content was assayed using the Brunswick Laboratories 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (BL-DMAC) method, and the dimer and trimer PACs-A and PACs-B percentages were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS). A balanced group of female (ranging from 19 to over 51 years) and male volunteers (over 51 years) was divided into two groups. The experimental group received 1 capsule containing OximacroReg. (36 mg PACs-A) twice per day (morning and evening) for 7 days, and the placebo group was given the same number of capsules with no PACs. Results: Analysis of OximacroReg. revealed a high total PAC content (372.34 mg/g+or-2.3) and a high percentage of PAC-A dimers and trimers (86.72%+or-1.65). After 7 days of OximacroReg. administration, a significant difference was found between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups for both females (Mann-Whitney U-test=875; P=.001; n=60) and males (Mann-Whitney U-test=24; P=.016; n=10). When the female and male age ranges were analysed separately, the female age range 31-35 showed only slightly significant differences between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups (Mann-Whitney U-test=20.5; P=.095; n=10), whereas all other female age ranges showed highly significant differences between the placebo and OximacroReg. groups (Mann-Whitney U-test=25; P=.008; n=10). Furthermore, colony forming unit/mL counts from the urine cultures showed a significant difference (P<.001) between the experimental and the placebo groups (SD difference=51688; df=34, t=-10.27; Dunn-Sidak Adjusted P<.001, Bonferroni Adjusted P<.001). Conclusion: Careful determination of the total PAC content using the BL-DMAC method and the authentication of PACs-A with mass spectrometry in cranberry extracts are necessary to prepare effective doses for UTI prevention. A dose of 112 mg OximacroReg. containing 36 mg PACs-A was found to be effective in preventing UTIs when used twice per day for 7 days.

Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes in women with a recent history of urinary tract infection

Posted: June 14, 2016
Authors: Kevin C Maki, Kerrie L Kaspar, Christina Khoo, Linda H Derrig, Arianne L Schild, and Kalpana Gupta
Journal: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 103 (6) (pp 1434-1442), 2016


Objective: We assessed the effects of the consumption of a cranberry beverage on episodes of clinical UTIs.

Design: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial, women with a history of a recent UTI were assigned to consume one 240-mL serving of cranberry beverage/d (n = 185) or a placebo (n = 188) beverage for 24 wk. The primary outcome was the clinical UTI incidence density, which was defined as the total number of clinical UTI events (including multiple events per subject when applicable) per unit of observation time.

Results: The dates of the random assignment of the first subject and the last subject’s final visit were February 2013 and March 2015, respectively. The mean age was 40.9 y, and characteristics were similar in both groups. Compliance with study product consumption was 98%, and 86% of subjects completed the treatment period in both groups. There were 39 investigator-diagnosed episodes of clinical UTI in the cranberry group compared with 67 episodes in the placebo group (antibiotic use–adjusted incidence rate ratio: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.91; P = 0.016). Clinical UTI with pyuria was also significantly reduced (incidence rate ratio: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.97; P = 0.037). One clinical UTI event was prevented for every 3.2 woman-years (95% CI: 2.0, 13.1 woman-years) of the cranberry intervention. The time to UTI with culture positivity did not differ significantly between groups (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.67; P = 0.914).

Conclusion: The consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical UTI episodes in women with a recent history of UTI. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01776021.

Full article: http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/103/6/1434.full

Are High Proanthocyanidins Key to Cranberry Efficacy in the Prevention of Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection?

Posted: March 23, 2016
Authors: Vostalova J, Vidlar A, Simanek V, Galandakova A, Kosina P, Vacek J, Vrbkova J, Zimmermann BF, Ulrichova J, Student V
Journal: Phytother Res 29(10):1559-67

Abstract: Most research on American cranberry in the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) has used juices. The spectrum of components in juice is limited. This study tested whether whole cranberry fruit powder (proanthocyanidin content 0.56%) could prevent recurrent UTI in 182 women with two or more UTI episodes in the last year. Participants were randomized to a cranberry (n=89) or a placebo group (n=93) and received daily 500mg of cranberry for 6months. The number of UTI diagnoses was counted. The intent-to-treat analyses showed that in the cranberry group, the UTIs were significantly fewer [10.8% vs. 25.8%, p=0.04, with an age-standardized 12-month UTI history (p=0.01)]. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the cranberry group experienced a longer time to first UTI than the placebo group (p=0.04). Biochemical parameters were normal, and there was no significant difference in urinary phenolics between the groups at baseline or on day180. The results show that cranberry fruit powder (peel, seeds, pulp) may reduce the risk of symptomatic UTI in women with a history of recurrent UTIs.

Comparison of the anti-adhesion activity of three different cranberry extracts on uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, ex vivo, acute study

Posted: March 23, 2016
Authors: Howell A, Souza D, Roller M, Fromentin E
Journal: Nat Prod Commun 10(7):1215-8

Abstract: Research suggests that cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) helps maintain urinary tract health. Bacterial adhesion to the uroepithelium is the initial step in the progression to development of a urinary tract infection. The bacterial anti-adhesion activity of cranberry proanthocyanidins (PACs) has been demonstrated in vitro. Three different cranberry extracts were developed containing a standardized level of 36 mg of PACs. This randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, ex vivo, acute study was designed to compare the anti-adhesion activity exhibited by human urine following consumption of three different cranberry extracts on uropathogenic P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in healthy men and women. All three cranberry extracts significantly increased anti-adhesion activity in urine. from 6 to 12 hours after intake of a single dose standardized to deliver 36 mg of PACs (as measured by the BL-DMAC method), versus placebo.

Cranberry Products for the Prophylaxis of Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Patients.

Posted: March 23, 2016
Authors: Durham SH, Stamm PL, Eiland LS
Journal: Ann Pharmacother 49(12):1349-56

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the existing data regarding the use of cranberry products for the prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in pediatric patients.
DATA SOURCES: A literature search of Medline databases from 1966 to June 2015 was conducted.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: The databases were searched using the terms ""pediatrics,"" ""children,"" ""cranberry,"" ""cranberry juice,"" and ""urinary tract infections."" The identified trials were then searched for additional references applicable to this topic.
DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 8 clinical trials were identified that examined the use of cranberry products, mostly juice, for the prevention of UTIs in children. Three trials examined the use in otherwise healthy children. Five trials examined the use in pediatric patients with underlying urogenital abnormalities of which 2 compared cranberry to antibiotics. In healthy pediatric patients, cranberry use was associated with a reduction in the overall number of UTIs and a decrease in the number of antibiotic days per year for UTI treatment. In patients with urogenital abnormalities, results were conflicting, with some studies showing no reduction in UTIs compared with placebo, but others demonstrating a significant reduction. However, cranberry products had similar efficacy when compared with both cefaclor and trimethoprim. All studies used a wide variety of doses and frequencies of cranberry, making specific product recommendations difficult.
CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry appears effective for the prevention of UTIs in otherwise healthy children and is at least as effective as antibiotics in children with underlying urogenital abnormalities. However, recommendations for cranberry dosing and frequency cannot be confidently made at this time. Larger, well-designed trials are recommended.

Efficacy and safety profile of cranberry in infants and children with recurrent urinary tract infection

Posted: March 23, 2016
Authors: Fernandez-Puentes V, Uberos J, Rodriguez-Belmonte R, Nogueras-Ocana M, Blanca-Jover E, Narbona-Lopez E
Journal: An Pediatr (Barc) 82(6):397-403

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Cranberry prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants has proven effective in the experimental model of the adult. There are few data on its efficacy, safety and recommended dose in the pediatric population.
METHODS: A controlled, double-blind Phase III clinical trial was conducted on children older than 1 month of age to evaluate the efficacy and safety of cranberry in recurrent urinary tract infection. The assumption was of the non-inferiority of cranberry versus trimethoprim. Statistical analysis was performed using Kaplan Meier analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 85 patients under 1 year of age and 107 over 1 year were recruited. Trimethoprim was prescribed to 75 patients and 117 received cranberry. The cumulative rate of urinary infection associated with cranberry prophylaxis in children under 1 year was 46% (95% CI; 23-70) in children and 17% (95% CI; 0-38) in girls, effectively at doses inferior to trimethoprim. In children over 1 year-old cranberry was not inferior to trimethoprim, with a cumulative rate of urine infection of 26% (95% CI; 12-41). The cranberry was well tolerated and with no new adverse effects.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that cranberry is safe and effective in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection in infants and children. With the doses used, their efficiency is not less than that observed for trimethoprim among those over 1 year-old. (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287).

In Vivo Consumption of Cranberry Exerts ex Vivo Antiadhesive Activity against FimH-Dominated Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: A Combined in Vivo, ex Vivo, and in Vitro Study of an Extract from Vaccinium macrocarpon.

Posted: March 23, 2016
Authors: Rafsanjany N, Senker J, Brandt S, Dobrindt U, Hensel A
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 63(40):8804-18

Abstract: For investigation of the molecular interaction of cranberry extract with adhesins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), urine from four volunteers consuming standardized cranberry extract (proanthocyanidin content = 1.24%) was analyzed within ex vivo experiments, indicating time-dependent significant inhibition of 40-50% of bacterial adhesion of UPEC strain NU14 to human T24 bladder cells. Under in vitro conditions a dose-dependent increase in bacterial adhesion was observed with proanthocyanidin-enriched cranberry Vaccinium macrocarpon extract (proanthocyanidin content = 21%). Confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy proved that V.m. extract led to the formation of bacterial clusters on the outer plasma membrane of the host cells without subsequent internalization. This agglomerating activity was not observed when a PAC-depleted extract (V.m. extract(PAC)) was used, which showed significant inhibition of bacterial adhesion in cases where type 1 fimbriae dominated and mannose-sensitive UPEC strain NU14 was used. V.m. extract(PAC) had no inhibitory activity against P- and F1C-fimbriae dominated strain 2980. Quantitative gene expression analysis indicated that PAC-containing as well as PAC-depleted cranberry extracts increased the fimH expression in NU14 as part of a feedback mechanism after blocking FimH. For strain 2980 the PAC-containing extract led to up-regulation of P- and F1C-fimbriae, whereas the PAC-depleted extract had no influence on gene expression. V.m. and V.m. extract(PAC) did not influence biofilm and curli formation in UPEC strains NU14 and 2980. These data lead to the conclusion that also proanthocyanidin-free cranberry extracts exert antiadhesive activity by interaction with mannose-sensitive type 1 fimbriae of UPEC.

Phenolic Acid Content and Antiadherence Activity in the Urine of Patients Treated with Cranberry Syrup (Vaccinium Macrocarpon) vs. Trimethoprim for Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

Posted: March 23, 2016
Authors: Uberos J, Rodriguez-Belmonte R, Rodriguez-Perez C, Molina-Oya M, Blanca-Jover E, Narbona-Lopez E, Munoz-Hoyos, A
Journal: J Funct Food 18(Part A):608-616.

Abstract: The effectiveness of cranberry in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) has been associated with its polyphenol content, particularly proanthocyanidins (PACs) and the inhibition of adherence of Escherichia coli to the uroepithelium. This paper describes a controlled, double blind, clinical trial of children aged over one month with recurrent urinary tract infection. The study aims were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cranberry syrup in children and to investigate the relationship between the excretion of phenolic acids in urine with the antiadherent activity of cranberry syrup. In the study population, cranberry syrup was found to be similar to trimethoprim, with a rate of UTI (reinfection) of 26% (95% CI 12-41). The administration of cranberry syrup was associated with high levels of hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids in urine; in both cases these molecules present activity in the biofilm inhibition or reduction of surface hydrophobicity of E. coli (Clinical Trials Registry ISRCTN16968287).

Pilot Study to Evaluate Compliance and Tolerability of Cranberry Capsules in Pregnancy for the Prevention of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

Posted: March 23, 2016
Authors: Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Hindra S, Guzman L, Le J, Nageotte M
Journal: J Altern Complement Med 21(11):700-6

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the compliance with and tolerability of daily cranberry capsule ingestion for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevention in pregnancy.
DESIGN: A total of 49 pregnant women from two sites were randomly assigned to cranberry or matching placebo, two doses daily, at gestational ages less than 16 weeks. Patients were followed monthly for urinary tract infection until delivery. Up to seven monthly visits were scheduled for each patient. Delivery data were evaluated.
RESULTS: Of 38 evaluable patients, the mean compliance rate over the study period was 82% (range, 20%-100%). This compliance rate and the 74% of patients achieving good (>75%) compliance were similar between those who received cranberry capsules and placebo. Compliance evaluation revealed that most patients stopped capsule consumption after 34-38 weeks of participation. Multivariate logistic regression and longitudinal analysis showed a significant interaction time effect with cranberry treatment. However, cranberry consumption was not a significant predictor of gastrointestinal intolerance or study withdrawal. Although 30% of patients withdrew for various reasons, only 1 withdrew because of intolerance to the cranberry capsules. Loss to follow-up was mostly due to provider change (9 of 49 [18%]) and therapy disinterest (4 of 49 [8%]). Seven cases of ASB occurred in 5 patients: 2 of 24 (8%) in the cranberry group and 3 of 25 (12%) in the placebo group. No cases of cystitis or pyelonephritis were observed.
CONCLUSION: One third of pregnant women could not complete the study protocol for various reasons. Compliance with and tolerability of cranberry capsule ingestion appear good; these capsules provide a potentially effective means to prevent ASB in pregnancy. Further studies with large samples are necessary to confirm the findings.

A 1H NMR-based approach to investigate metabolomic differences in the plasma and urine of young women after cranberry juice or apple juice consumption.

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Liu HY, Tayyari F, Khoo C, Gu LW
Journal: J Funct Food 14:76-86

Abstract: The overall metabolic changes caused by cranberry juice or apple juice consumption using a global 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach were investigated. Eighteen female college students were given either cranberry or apple juice for three days using a cross-over design. Plasma and urine samples were collected and analyzed using 1H NMR-based metabolomics followed by multivariate analyses. No metabolic difference was observed in plasma before and after juice consumption. However, metabolome in plasma and urine after cranberry juice consumption were different from those after apple juice consumption. Cranberry juice consumption caused a greater increase in urinary excretion of hippuric acid and a higher level of citric acid in the plasma. Furthermore, cranberry juice decreased the plasma level of lactate, D-glucose, and two unidentified metabolites compared to apple juice consumption. The metabolomic changes caused by cranberry juice consumption may help to explain its reported health benefits.

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the bacterial anti-adhesion effects of cranberry extract beverages

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Kaspar KL, Howell AB, Khoo C
Journal: Food Funct 6(4):1212-7

Abstract: In this study, we examined the ex vivo urinary anti-adhesion activity of low-calorie cranberry extract beverages in both a pilot study (n = 10) and a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial (n = 59). In the pilot study, subjects consumed a cranberry extract beverage (CEB) or a cranberry extract and juice beverage (CEJB), compared to placebo. Both cranberry beverages utilized a standardized cranberry extract powder at a level equivalent to low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (LCJC) on a PAC content basis. Clean-catch urine samples collected at baseline and post intervention were tested for anti-adhesion activity utilizing a mannose-resistant human red blood cell hemagglutination assay specific for P-fimbriated E. coli. Results from the pilot study indicated that ex vivo anti-adhesion activity for both cranberry treatments were higher (p < 0.05) than placebo. In the clinical trial, we compared CEJB to LCJC and a placebo beverage. Post-consumption urine from both cranberry treatment groups showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) anti-adhesion activity compared to placebo. There were no differences observed in anti-adhesion activity between CJEB and LCJC, indicating similar bioactivity. Therefore, acute beverage consumption of cranberry extract and/or juice provides ex vivo anti-adhesion activity, which may help to improve urinary tract health.

American cranberry (proanthocyanidin 120 mg): its value for the prevention of urinary tracts infections after ureteral catheter placement.

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Barnoiu OS, Sequeira-Garcia Del Moral J, Sanchez-Martinez N, Diaz-Molina P, Flores-Sirvent L, Baena-Gonzalez V
Journal: Actas Urol Esp 39(2):112-7

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most frequent complications after urinary tract surgical procedures, mainly when catheter placement is necessary. Although the use of American cranberry has been related with a reduced risk of UTI, there is no study reporting the value of its prevention effect against catheter-associated urinary tract infections.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective trial comparing UTI rate (positive urine culture) among 31 patients with double J catheter (JJ) and adding American cranberry (120 mg) in routine prophylactic therapy, and 31 patients with JJ catheter only receiving routine prophylactic therapy.
RESULTS: Regarding general characteristics of the populations no significant difference among groups have been found. Only significant differences have been observed when the variables ""cranberry treatment"" and ""dwell time of JJ catheter"" were related. ""Dwell time of JJ catheter"" was higher in patients with UTI (35.9 compared 28.5 days [P=.03]). UTI percentage was lower in cranberry supplemented patient group (12.9 compared to 38.7% [P=.04]).
CONCLUSIONS: We can conclude that American cranberry (120 mg) has an adjuvant effect in the prevention of UTI in patients with JJ catheter after surgery.

Antibiotic susceptibility of urinary isolates in nursing home residents consuming cranberry capsules versus placebo

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Madden GR, Argraves SM, Van Ness PH, Juthani-Mehta M
Journal: Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 36(3):356-7

Abstract: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection
among nursing home residents, and the microorganisms pre-valent in this setting pose significant challenges for treatment. Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton
) are thought to reduce UTIs; this view is supported by a placebo-controlled trial showing lower rates of bacteriuria plus pyuria with daily ingestion of 300 mL of cranberry juice cocktail (15.0% versus 28.1% in controls). However, subsequent studies of cranberries for prevention of UTI, including a large Cochrane meta-analysis, have shown mixed results. Various mechanisms of the bacteriologic effect of cranberries are postulated; however, inhibition of P fimbriae–mediated adhesion of E. coli by proanthocyanidin (PAC) remains the leading theory.
We sought to compare antibiotic susceptibility and proportions of non–E. coli Enterobacteriaceae among Gram-negative urinary isolates from participants randomized to cranberry capsules compared to placebo.

Cranberry fruit powder (Flowens™)improves lower urinary tract symptoms in men: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Vidlar A, Student Jr V, Vostalova J, Fromentin E, Roller M, Simanek V, Student V
Journal: World J Urol DOI 10.1007/s00345-015-1611-7

Abstract: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia increase with age. To date, several medications are available to treat LUTS, including herbal remedies which offer less side effects but lack robust efficacy studies.
This 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study aimed at evaluating the dose effect of 250 or 500 mg cranberry powder (Flowens™) on LUTS and uroflowmetry in men over the age of 45. A total of 124 volunteers with PSA levels <2.5 ng/mL and an international prostate symptoms score (IPSS) score &#8805;8 were recruited and randomized. The primary outcome measure was the IPSS, evaluated at 3 and 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included quality of life, bladder volume (Vol), maximum urinary flow rate (Q max), average urinary flow rate (Q ave), ultrasound-estimated post-void residual urine volume (PVR), serum prostate-specific antigen, selenium, interleukin 6, and C-reactive protein at 6 months.
After 6 months, subjects in both Flowens™ groups had a lower IPSS (-3.1 and -4.1 in the 250- and 500-mg groups, p = 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) versus the placebo group (-1.5), and a dose-response effect was observed. There were significant differences in Q max, Q ave, PVR, and Vol in the Flowens™ 500-mg group versus baseline (p < 0.05). A dose-dependent effect on Vol was observed, as well as on PVR, for participants with a nonzero PVR. There was no effect on clinical chemistry or hematology markers.
Flowens™ showed a clinically relevant, dose-dependent, and significant reduction in LUTS in men over 45.

Cranberry juice capsules and urinary tract infection after surgery: results of a randomized trial

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Foxman B, Cronenwett AE, Spino C, Berger MB, Morgan DM
Journal: Am J Obstet Gynecol 213(2):194.e1-8

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women undergoing elective gynecological surgery during which a catheter is placed is high: 10-64% following catheter removal. We conducted the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the therapeutic efficacy of cranberry juice capsules in preventing UTI after surgery.
STUDY DESIGN: We recruited patients from a single hospital between August 2011 and January 2013. Eligible participants were undergoing elective gynecological surgery that did not involve a fistula repair or vaginal mesh removal. One hundred sixty patients were randomized and received 2 cranberry juice capsules 2 times a day, equivalent to 2 8 ounce servings of cranberry juice, for 6 weeks after surgery or matching placebo. The primary endpoint was the proportion of participants who experienced clinically diagnosed and treated UTI with or without positive urine culture. Kaplan-Meier plots and log rank tests compared the 2 treatment groups.
RESULTS: The occurrence of UTI was significantly lower in the cranberry treatment group compared with the placebo group (15 of 80 [19%] vs 30 of 80 [38%]; odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.79; P = .008). After adjustment for known confounders, including the frequency of intermittent self-catheterization in the postoperative period, the protective effects of cranberry remained (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.94). There were no treatment differences in the incidence of adverse events, including gastrointestinal upset (56% vs 61% for cranberry vs placebo).
CONCLUSION: Among women undergoing elective benign gynecological surgery involving urinary catheterization, the use of cranberry extract capsules during the postoperative period reduced the rate of UTI by half.

Cranberry supplementation in the prevention of non-severe lower urinary tract infections: a pilot study.

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Ledda A, Bottari A, Luzzi R, Belcaro G, Hu S, Dugall M, Hosoi M, Ippolito E, Corsi M, Gizzi G, Morazzoni P, Riva A, Giacomelli L, Togni S
Journal: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 19(1):77-80,

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Cranberry extracts have been tested as a nutritional supplementation in the prevention of recurrent lower-urinary tract infections (R-UTIs), with mixed results. This pilot, registry study evaluates the prophylactic effects of oral supplementation with a new well-standardized cranberry extract in patients with R-UTI, over a 2-month follow-up.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All subjects were suggested to take one capsule containing a cranberry extract (AnthocranTM) for 60 days and were also given lifestyle advice. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients on cranberry extracts and those who don't take this supplementation.
RESULTS: In total, 22 subjects completed the study in each of the two groups. In the cranberry group, the reduction in the frequency of UTI episodes during the study period compared with the two months before the inclusion was 73.3% (p < 0.05). This figure was 15.4% in the control group (p < 0.05; p = 0.012 vs cranberry group). Seven (31.8%) subjects in the cranberry group were symptom-free; no patient was symptom-free in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean duration of UTI episodes was 2.5 +/- 1.3 days in the cranberry group, compared with 3.6 +/- 1.7 days in subjects not on cranberry (p < 0.05). Three subjects (13.6%) in the cranberry group and 8 (36.3%) in the control group required medical consultation for UTI symptoms (p < 0.05). Urine evaluation was completely negative in 20/22 subjects in the Cranberry group (90.9%) and in 11 control subjects (50.0%; p < 0.005). No adverse events were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results, obtained in a field-practice setting, indicates the effectiveness and safety of a well-standardized cranberry extract in the prevention of R-UTI.

Standardized cranberry capsules for radiation cystitis in prostate cancer patients in New Zealand: a randomized double blinded, placebo controlled pilot study

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Hamilton K, Bennett NC, Purdie G, Herst PM
Journal: Support Care Cancer 23(1):95-102

Abstract: PURPOSE: Acute radiation cystitis, inflammation of the bladder, is a common side effect in men receiving external beam radiation for prostate cancer. Although several treatments provide symptomatic relief, there is no effective treatment to prevent or treat radiation cystitis. Cranberry products have been associated with urinary tract health. This study aimed to determine the effect of highly standardized cranberry capsules (containing 72 mg proanthocyanidins [PACS]) compared with that of placebo capsules on the incidence and severity of radiation cystitis.
METHODS: Forty-one men with prostate cancer participated in a double blinded randomized placebo controlled study. Men took one capsule a day at breakfast during treatment and for 2 weeks after treatment completion. Severity of urinary symptoms and the bother these caused were measured using the individual items of the urinary domain of the Modified Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC).
RESULTS: The incidence of cystitis was lower in men taking cranberry capsules (65%) compared with those that took placebo capsules (90%) (p=0.058); severe cystitis was seen in 30% of men in the cranberry arm and 45% in the placebo arm (p=0.30). Overall, the incidence of pain/burning was significantly lower in the cranberry cohort (p=0.045). Men on the low hydration regimen who took cranberry had less pain/burning (p=0.038), stronger urine steam (p=0.030) and used significantly fewer pads/liners (p=0.042), which was significantly different from those on the high hydration regimen (p=0.028).
CONCLUSION: Men receiving radiation therapy for prostate cancer may benefit from using cranberry capsules, particularly those on low hydration regimens or with baseline urinary symptoms.

Cranberry versus placebo in the prevention of urinary infections in multiple sclerosis: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

Posted: April 1, 2015
Authors: Gallien P, Amarenco G, Benoit N, Bonniaud V, Donzé C, Kerdraon J, de Seze M, Denys P, Renault A, Naudet F, Reymann JM.
Journal: Mult Scler 20(9):1252-1259.

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the usefulness of cranberry extract in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients suffering from urinary disorders.
METHODS: In total, 171 adult MS outpatients with urinary disorders presenting at eight centers were randomized (stratification according to center and use of clean intermittent self-catheterization) to cranberry versus placebo in a 1-year,
prospective, double-blind study that was analyzed using a sequential method on an intent-to-treat basis. An independent monitoring board analyzed the results of the analyses each time 40 patients were assessed on the main endpoint. Cranberry extract (36 mg proanthocyanidins per day) or a matching placebo was taken by participants twice daily for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the time to first symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), subject to validation by a validation committee.
RESULTS: The second sequential analyses allowed us to accept the null hypothesis (no difference between cranberry and placebo). There was no difference in time to first symptomatic UTI distribution across 1 year, with an estimated hazard ratio
of 0.99, 95% CI [0.61, 1.60] (p = 0.97). Secondary endpoints and tolerance did not differ between groups.
CONCLUSION: Taking cranberry extract versus placebo twice a day did not prevent UTI occurrence in MS patients with urinary disorders. Trial Registration NCT00280592.

Effectiveness of an association of a cranberry dry extract, D-mannose, and the two microorganisms actobacillus plantarum LP01 and actobacillus paracasei LPC09 in women affected by cystitis: a pilot study.

Posted: April 1, 2015
Authors: Vicariotto F
Journal: J Clin Gastroenterol 48 Suppl 1:S96-101.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection in women. Most UTIs are acute uncomplicated cystitis caused by Escherichia coli (86%). This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of an association of a cranberry dry extract, D-mannose, a gelling complex composed of the exopolysaccharides produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST10 (DSM 25246) and tara gum, as well as the 2 microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum LP01 (LMG P-21021) and Lactobacillus paracasei LPC09 (DSM 24243) in women affected by acute uncomplicated cystitis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three premenopausal, nonpregnant women diagnosed with acute uncomplicated cystitis were enrolled in a pilot prospective study and
completed the treatment protocol. Subjects were instructed to take 2 doses per day during the first month, and then to continue with 1 sachet per day until the sixtieth day. Nitrites and leukocyte esterase on urine dipstick testing were used
as indicators of cystitis, with analysis performed at enrollment, after 30 and 60 days, and after 1 month of follow-up. Typical UTI symptoms, namely dysuria, frequent voiding of small volumes, urinary urgency, suprapubic pain, and gross
hematuria were scored 0 to 3 and evaluated at each visit.
RESULTS: Positive results for the presence of nitrites and leukocyte esterase were found in 14 and 20 subjects after 30 days and in 9 and 14 women after 60 days, respectively (P<0.001). At the end of the follow-up period, positive
results for nitrites and leukocyte esterase were recorded in only 4 and 3 of 24 and 19 subjects (16.7%, P=0.103; 15.8%, P=0.325, respectively), with negative results after 60 days. Typical symptoms of cystitis, specifically dysuria, frequent voiding, urgency, and suprapubic pain were significantly improved as well. No significant differences were recorded in the incidence and severity of hematuria at any visit.
CONCLUSION: The long-term ability of an association of cranberry, D-mannose, an innovative gelling complex, and the 2 microorganisms tested to significantly improve the uncomfortable symptoms reported by women with acute cystitis has been suggested.

Efficient and cost-effective alternative treatment for recurrent urinary tract infections and interstitial cystitis in women: a two-case report.

Posted: April 1, 2015
Authors: Mansour A, Hariri E, Shelh S, Irani R, Mroueh M
Journal: Case Rep Med 2014:698758.

Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections affecting women. UTIs are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, which increases the likelihood of a recurrent infection. We encountered two cases of recurrent
UTIs (rUTIs) with a positive E. coli culture, not improving with antibiotics due to the development of antibiotic resistance. An alternative therapeutic regimen based on parsley and garlic, L-arginine, probiotics, and cranberry tablets has been given. This regimen showed a significant health improvement and symptoms relief without recurrence for more than 12 months. In conclusion, the case supports the concept of using alternative medicine in treating rUTI and as a prophylaxis or in patients who had developed antibiotic resistance.

Evaluation of the effect of cranberry juice on symptoms associated with a urinary tract infection.

Posted: April 1, 2015
Authors: Bass-Ware A, Weed D, Johnson T, Spurlock A.
Journal: Urol Nurs 34(3):121-7

Abstract: The purpose of this research was to correlate daily consumption of cranberry juice and symptoms of a diagnosed UTI among 26 volunteer adult female patients

Cost-effectiveness of cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections in premenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

Posted: July 25, 2014
Authors: Bosmans JE, Beerepoot MA, Prins JM, ter Riet G, Geerlings SE
Journal: PLoS ONE 9(4):e91939

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and result in an enormous economic burden. The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has stimulated interest in non-antibiotic agents to prevent UTIs.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cranberry prophylaxis compared to antibiotic prophylaxis with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) over a 12 month period in premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: An economic evaluation was performed alongside a randomized trial. Primary outcome was the number of UTIs during 12 months. Secondary outcomes included satisfaction and quality of life. Healthcare utilization was measured using questionnaires. Missing data were imputed using multiple imputation. Bootstrapping was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the treatments.

RESULTS: Cranberry prophylaxis was less effective than TMP-SMX prophylaxis, but the differences in clinical outcomes were not statistically significant. Costs after 12 months in the cranberry group were statistically significantly higher than in the TMP-SMX group (mean difference 249, 95% confidence interval 70 to 516). Cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves showed that cranberry prophylaxis to prevent UTIs is less effective and more expensive than (dominated by) TMP-SMX prophylaxis.

CONCLUSION: In premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs, cranberry prophylaxis is not cost-effective compared to TMP-SMX prophylaxis. However, it was not possible to take into account costs attributed to increased antibiotic resistance within the framework of this randomized trial; modeling studies are recommended to investigate these costs. Moreover, although we based the dosage of cranberry extract on available evidence, this may not be the optimal dosage. Results may change when this optimal dosage is identified.

Cost-effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infection in long-term care facilities: economic evaluation with a randomized controlled trial.

Posted: July 25, 2014
Authors: Hout WB van den, Caljouw MAA, Putter H, Cools HJM, Gussekloo J
Journal: J Am Geriatr Soc 62(1):111-16

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the preventive use of cranberry capsules in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents is cost-effective depending on urinary tract infection (UTI) risk. DESIGN: Economic evaluation with a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Long-term care facilities. PARTICIPANTS: LTCF residents (N=928, 703 female, median age 84), stratified according to UTI risk. MEASUREMENTS: UTI incidence (clinically or strictly defined), survival, quality of life, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs. RESULTS: In the weeks after a clinical UTI, participants showed a significant but moderate deterioration in quality of life, survival, care dependency, and costs. In high-UTI-risk participants, cranberry costs were estimated at Euro 439 per year (1.00 euro=1.37 U.S. dollar), which is Euro 3,800 per prevented clinically defined UTI (95% confidence interval=Euro 1,300-infinity). Using the strict UTI definition, the use of cranberry increased costs without preventing UTIs. Taking cranberry capsules had a 22% probability of being cost-effective compared with placebo (at a willingness to pay of Euro 40,000 per QALY). In low-UTI-risk participants, use of cranberry capsules was only 3% likely to be cost-effective. CONCLUSION: In high-UTI-risk residents, taking cranberry capsules may be effective in preventing UTIs but is not likely to be cost-effective in the investigated dosage, frequency, and setting. In low-UTI-risk LTCF residents, taking cranberry capsules twice daily is neither effective nor cost-effective.

Effectiveness of cranberry capsules to prevent urinary tract infections in vulnerable older persons: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial in long-term care facilities.

Posted: July 25, 2014
Authors: Caljouw MAA, Hout WB van den, Putter H, Achterberg WP, Cools HJM, Gussekloo J
Journal: J Am Geriatr Soc 62(1):103-10

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine whether cranberry capsules prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. DESIGN: Double-blind randomized placebo-controlled multicenter trial. SETTING: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs). PARTICIPANTS: LTCF residents (N=928; 703 women, median age 84). MEASUREMENTS: Cranberry and placebo capsules were taken twice daily for 12 months. Participants were stratified according to UTI risk (risk factors included long-term catheterization, diabetes mellitus, >=1 UTI in preceding year). Main outcomes were incidence of UTI according to a clinical definition and a strict definition. RESULTS: In participants with high UTI risk at baseline (n=516), the incidence of clinically defined UTI was lower with cranberry capsules than with placebo (62.8 vs 84.8 per 100 person-years at risk, P=.04); the treatment effect was 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.57-0.97). For the strict definition, the treatment effect was 1.02 (95% CI=0.68-1.55). No difference in UTI incidence between cranberry and placebo was found in participants with low UTI risk (n=412). CONCLUSION: In LTCF residents with high UTI risk at baseline, taking cranberry capsules twice daily reduces the incidence of clinically defined UTI, although it does not reduce the incidence of strictly defined UTI. No difference in incidence of UTI was found in residents with low UTI risk.

Recurrent urinary tract infections among women: comparative effectiveness of 5 prevention and management strategies using a Markov chain Monte Carlo model.

Posted: July 25, 2014
Authors: Eells SJ, Bharadwa K, McKinnell JA, Miller LG
Journal: Clin Infect Dis 58(2):147-60

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common problem among women. However, comparative effectiveness strategies for managing recurrent UTIs are lacking.

METHODS: We performed a systematic literature review of management of women experiencing >3 UTIs per year. We then developed a Markov chain Monte Carlo model of recurrent UTI for each management strategy with >2 adequate trials published. We simulated a cohort that experienced 3 UTIs/year and a secondary cohort that experienced 8 UTIs/year. Model outcomes were treatment efficacy, patient and payer cost, and health-related quality of life.

RESULTS: Five strategies had >2 clinical trials published: (1) daily antibiotic (nitrofurantoin) prophylaxis; (2) daily estrogen prophylaxis; (3) daily cranberry prophylaxis; (4) acupuncture prophylaxis; and (5) symptomatic self-treatment. In the 3 UTIs/year model, nitrofurantoin prophylaxis was most effective, reducing the UTI rate to 0.4 UTIs/year, and the most expensive to the payer ($821/year). All other strategies resulted in payer cost savings but were less efficacious. Symptomatic self-treatment was the only strategy that resulted in patient cost savings, and was the most favorable strategy in term of cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.

CONCLUSIONS: Daily antibiotic use is the most effective strategy for recurrent UTI prevention compared to daily cranberry pills, daily estrogen therapy, and acupuncture. Cost savings to payers and patients were seen for most regimens, and improvement in QALYs were seen with all. Our findings provide clinically meaningful data to guide the physician-patient partnership in determining a preferred method of prevention for this common clinical problem.

Solidago, orthosiphon, birch and cranberry extracts can decrease microbial colonization and biofilm development in indwelling urinary catheter: a microbiologic and ultrastructural pilot study.

Posted: July 25, 2014
Authors: Cai T, Caola I, Tessarolo F, Piccoli F, D'Elia C, Caciagli P, Nollo G, Malossini G, Nesi G, Mazzoli S, Bartoletti R
Journal: World J Urol 32(4):1007-14

Abstract: "PURPOSE: Plants extracts are used in urology to manage urinary tract infections. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a preparation with solidago, orthosiphon, birch and cranberry extracts (CISTIMEV PLUS()) in reducing microbial colonization and biofilm development in patients with indwelling urinary catheters.

METHODS: All consecutive outpatients attending our department between January and June 2010 for the substitution of indwelling catheters were considered for this single-blinded, randomized and controlled pilot study to test superiority of the preventative management (CISTIMEV PLUS(), 1 tablet daily for 30 days) in respect to no treatment. A sample size of 10-40 participants per group was considered adequate. All patients underwent urine culture the same day of the catheter substitution and were then randomized into test group (n = 48) and control group (n = 35). Ultrastructural analysis was also performed. After 30 days, the catheter was replaced and the analysis repeated. The primary outcome was the rate of positive urinary culture at the end of the entire study period.

RESULTS: Ten patients abandoned the study. At 30 days, according to per-protocol analysis, the groups statistically differed regarding the rate of positive urine cultures: test group 10/43 and control group 16/30 (p = 0.013) (-30.1 % [95 % CI -51.94 to -8.21]). The most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of solidago, orthosiphon, birch and cranberry extracts resulted in a significant reduction of microbial colonization in patients with indwelling urinary catheters. Larger clinical trials are needed to demonstrate that the effects here reported are sufficient to reduce symptomatic catheter-associated urinary tract infections."

Consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries may reduce urinary tract infection incidence in susceptible women--a modified observational study.

Posted: February 15, 2014
Authors: Burleigh AE, Benck SM, McAchran SE, Reed JD, Krueger CG, Hopkins WJ
Journal: Nutr J 12(1):139

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections, and over 50% of women will have a UTI during their lifetimes. Antibiotics are used for prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs but can lead to emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it is reasonable to investigate nutritional strategies for prevention of UTIs. Cranberry juices and supplements have been used for UTI prophylaxis, but with variable efficacy. Because dried cranberries may contain a different spectrum of polyphenolics than juice, consuming berries may or may not be more beneficial than juice in decreasing the incidence of UTIs in susceptible women. The primary objectives of this study were to determine if consumption of sweetened, dried cranberries (SDC) decreases recurrent UTIs and whether this intervention would alter the heterogeneity, virulence factor (VF) profiles, or numbers of intestinal E. coli.

METHODS: Twenty women with recurrent UTIs were enrolled in the trial and consumed one serving of SDC daily for two weeks. Clinical efficacy was determined by two criteria, a decrease in the six-month UTI rates pre- and post-consumption and increased time until the first UTI since beginning the study. Strain heterogeneity and virulence factor profiles of intestinal E. coli isolated from rectal swabs were determined by DNA fingerprinting and muliplex PCR, respectively. The numbers of intestinal E. coli eluted from rectal swabs pre- and post-consumption were also quantified.

RESULTS: Over one-half of the patients did not experience a UTI within six months of SDC consumption, and the mean UTI rate per six months decreased significantly. Kaplan-Meier analysis of infection incidence in women consuming SDC compared to patients in a previous control group showed a significant reduction in time until first UTI within six months. The heterogeneity, VF profiles, and prevalence of intestinal E. coli strains were not significantly different after cranberry consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study indicate a beneficial effect from consuming SDC to reduce the number of UTIs in susceptible women. Because there were no changes in the heterogeneity or VF profiles of E. coli, additional studies are needed to determine the mechanism of action of SDC for reduction of UTIs.

Cysticlean a highly pac standardized content in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: an observational, prospective cohort study.

Posted: February 15, 2014
Authors: Sanchez Ballester F, Ruiz Vidal V, Lopez Alcina E, Domenech Perez C, Escudero Fontano E, Oltra Benavent A, Montoliu Garcia A, Sobron Bustamante M
Journal: BMC Urol 13:28

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The present study was aimed at determining the prophylactic efficacy of American cranberry (AC) extract (Cysticlean) in women with recurrent symptomatic postcoital urinary tract infections (PCUTI), non-consumer of AC extract in the past 3 months before inclusion, and to determine changes in their quality of life (QoL).

METHODS: This was a single center, observational, prospective study in a total of 20 women (mean age 35.2 years; 50.0% were married). Patients were followed up for 3 and 6 months during treatment.

RESULTS: The number of PCUTIs in the previous 3 months prior to start the treatment with Cysticlean was 2.8+1.3 and it was reduced to 0.2+0.5 at Month 6 (P<0.0001), which represent a 93% improvement. At baseline, the mean score on the VAS scale (range from 0 to 100) for assessing the QoL was 62.4+19.1, increasing to 78.2+12.4 at Month 6 (P=0.0002), which represents a 20% improvement. All patients had an infection with positive urine culture at baseline, after 6 months there were only 3 symptomatic infections (P<0.001). The most common bacterium was Escherichia coli.

CONCLUSIONS: Prophylaxis with American cranberry extract (Cysticlean) could be an alternative to classical therapies with antibiotics. Further studies are needed to confirm results obtained in this pilot study.

A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the preventive effect of cranberry juice (UR65) for patients with recurrent urinary tract infection

Posted: September 15, 2013
Authors: Takahashi S. Hamasuna R. Yasuda M. Arakawa S. Tanaka K. Ishikawa K. Kiyota H. Hayami H. Yamamoto S. Kubo T. Matsumoto T.
Journal: J Infect Chemother 19(1):112-7

Abstract: We examined the rate of relapse, as a variable index, in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI) who suffered from multiple relapses when using cranberry juice (UR65). A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted from October 2007 to September 2009 in Japan. The subjects were outpatients aged 20 to 79 years who were randomly divided into two groups. One group received cranberry juice (group A) and the other a placebo beverage (group P). To keep the conditions blind, the color and taste of the beverages were adjusted. The subjects drank 1 bottle (125 mL) of cranberry juice or the placebo beverage once daily, before going to sleep, for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was relapse of UTI. In the group of females aged 50 years or more, there was a significant difference in the rate of relapse of UTI between groups A and P (log-rank test; p = 0.0425). In this subgroup analysis, relapse of UTI was observed in 16 of 55 (29.1 %) patients in group A and 31 of 63 (49.2 %) in group P. In this study, cranberry juice prevented the recurrence of UTI in a limited female population with 24-week intake of the beverage.

Identification of polyphenols and their metabolites in human urine after cranberry-syrup consumption

Posted: September 15, 2013
Authors: Iswaldi I, Arraez-Roman D, Gomez-Caravaca AM, Contreras Mdel M, Uberos J, Segura-Carretero A, Fernandez-Gutierrez A
Journal: Food Chem Toxicol 55:484-92

Abstract: As the beneficial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be partly attributed to its phenolic composition, the evaluation of the physiological behaviour of this fraction is crucial. A rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been used to identify phenolic metabolites in human urine after a single dose of cranberry syrup. Prior to the analysis, metabolites were extracted using an optimised solid-phase extraction procedure. All possible metabolites were investigated based on retention time, accurate mass data and isotope and fragmentation patterns. Free coumaroyl hexose (isomer 1 and 2), dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeoyl glucose, dihydroferulic acid 4-O--d-glucuronide, methoxyquercetin 3-O-galactoside, scopoletin, myricetin and quercetin, together with other 23 phase-I and phase-II metabolites, including various isomers, could be tentatively identified in the urine. Afterwards, the metabolites were simultaneously screened in the urine of different subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6h after the ingestion of cranberry syrup by Target Analysis(TM) software.

Prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection after renal transplantation by cranberry juice and L-methionine

Posted: February 15, 2013
Authors: Pagonas N, Horstrup J, Schmidt D, Benz P, Schindler R, Reinke P, van der Giet M, Zidek W, Westhoff TH
Journal: Transplant Proc 44(10):3017-21

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) increase mortality and reduce graft survival after renal transplantation. Strategies to prevent recurrent UTIs include L-methionine, cranberry juice, and antibiotics. Data on the efficacy of cranberry and L-methionine, however, are controversial in the general population; there are few data in renal transplant recipients.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 82 transplant recipients with recurrent UTIs, who underwent prophylaxis with cranberry juice (2 x 50 mL/d, n = 39, 47.6%), or L-methionine (3 x 500 mg/d, n = 25, 30.5%), or both modalities (n = 18, 21.9%). Thirty patients without prophylaxis served as controls. We analyzed symptoms, pyuria/nitrituria, and incidence of UTI events during 1 year before versus after initiation of prophylaxis.
RESULTS: Prophylaxis highly significantly decreased the annual UTI incidence by 58.3% (P < .001) in the study population with no change in the control group (P = .85); in addition, 53.7% of symptomatic patients reported relief of symptoms and pyuria/nitrituria disappeared in 42.4% of the dipstick-positive patients (P < .001 each). Cranberry reduced the annual number of UTI episodes by 63.9% from 3.6 +/- 1.4 to 1.3 +/- 1.3/year (P < .001) and L-methionine by 48.7% from 3.9 +/- 1.8 to 2.0 +/- 1.3/year (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Cranberry juice and L-methionine successfully reduced the incidence of UTI after renal transplantation.

Cranberry Juice for the Prevention of Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection: A Randoomized Controlled Trial

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Afshar K, Stothers L, Scott H, MacNeily AE
Journal: J Urol

Abstract: Purpose: Proanthocyanidins found in cranberry have been reported to have in vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity. We determined the effectiveness of cranberry juice for the prevention of urinary tract infections in children.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 children were randomized to receive daily cranberry juice with high concentrations of proanthocyanidin vs cranberry
juice with no proanthocyanidin for a 1-year period. The study was powered to detect a 30% decrease in the rate of symptomatic urinary tract infection with type I and II errors of 0.05 and 0.2, respectively. Toilet trained children up to age 18 years were eligible if they had at least 2 culture
documented nonfebrile urinary tract infections in the calendar year before enrollment. Patients with anatomical abnormalities (except for primary vesicoureteral
reflux) were excluded from study. Subjects were followed for 12 months. The participants, clinicians, outcome assessor and statistician were all blinded to treatment allocation.
Results: Of the children 39 girls and 1 boy were recruited. Mean and median patient age was 9.5 and 7 years, respectively (range 5 to 18). There were 20 patients with comparable baseline characteristics randomized to each group. After 12 months of followup the average incidence of urinary tract infection in the treatment group was 0.4 per patient per year and 1.15 in the placebo group
(p 0.045), representing a 65% reduction in the risk of urinary tract infection.
Conclusions: Cranberry juice with high concentrations of proanthocyanidin appears to be effective in the prevention of pediatric nonfebrile urinary tract infections. Further studies are required to determine the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

Enteric-coated, highly standardized cranberry extract reduces risk of UTIs and urinary symptoms during radiotherapy for prostate carcinoma

Posted: October 30, 2012
Authors: Bonetta A, Di Pierro F
Journal: Cancer Manag Res

Abstract: Background: Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) proanthocyanidins can interfere with adhesion of bacteria to uroepithelial cells, potentially preventing lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs). Because LUTIs are a common side effect of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer, we evaluated the clinical efficacy of enteric-coated tablets containing highly standardized V. msacrocarpon (ecVM) in this condition.
Methods: A total of 370 consecutive patients were entered into this study. All patients received intensity-modulated radiotherapy for prostate cancer; 184 patients were also treated with ecVM while 186 served as controls. Cranberry extract therapy started on the simulation day, at which time a bladder catheterization was performed. During EBRT (over 6–7 weeks), all patients underwent weekly examination for urinary tract symptoms, including regular urine cultures during the treatment period.
Results: Compliance was excellent, with no adverse effects or allergic reactions being observed, apart from gastric pain in two patients. In the cranberry cohort (n = 184), 16 LUTIs (8.7%) were observed, while in the control group (n = 186) 45 LUTIs (24.2%) were recorded. This difference was statistically significant. Furthermore, lower rates of nocturia, urgency, micturition frequency, and dysuria were observed in the group that received cranberry extract.
Conclusion: Cranberry extracts have been reported to reduce the incidence of LUTIs significantly in women and children. Our data extend these results to patients with prostate cancer undergoing irradiation to the pelvis, who had a significant reduction in LUTIs compared with controls. These results were accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in urinary tract symptoms (dysuria, nocturia, urinary frequency, urgency), suggesting a generally protective effect of cranberry extract on the bladder mucosa.

Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Uberos J, Nogueras-Ocana M, Fernandex Puentes V, Rodriguez-Belmonte R, Narbona-Lopez E, Molina-Carballo A, Munoz-Hoyos A
Journal: Open Access Journal of Clinical Trials 2012(4):31–38

Abstract: Objectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI).
Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial. Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain). Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of ecurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months), associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.
Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.
Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during
follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%). Six patients (6.3%) were male and 20 (21.1%) were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3%) receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8.4% of the total, 95% CI: 2.8%–13.9%) were given cranberry. Sixty-six percent of the episodes of UTI recurrence were caused by Escherichia coli, with no significant differences being found between the two
treatment branches. No differences were observed between the two treatment branches in the rate of resistance to antibiotics.Conclusion: Our study confirms that cranberry syrup is a safe treatment for the pediatric population. Cranberry prophylaxis has noninferiority with respect to trimethoprim in recurrent UTI.

Effect of cranberry and pumpkin seed extract combination on urinary system: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study with determination of adherence of uropathogenic bacteria to urothelial cells [German]

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Hartwich, R
Journal: Ernahrung und Medizin 27(1):24-8

Abstract: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical cross-over study with 18 subjects of both sexes (aged 21-52 years), the effect of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and pumpkin seed extract combination (Cystorenal Cranberry plus) on the urinary tract through inhibition of Escherichia coli adherence to urothelial cells was examined. With the ingestion of Cystorenal Cranberry plus, the bacterial adherence was decreased by 33.4% compared to the placebo. The recommended amount of the preparation is sufficient to protect the healthy bladder. There was no adverse effects observed.

Pilot randomized controlled dosing study of cranberry capsules for reduction of bacteriuria plus pyuria in female nursing home residents

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Bianco L, Perrelli E, Towle V, Van Ness PH, Juthani-Mehta M
Journal: J Am Geriatr Soc 60(6):1180-1

Abstract: Cranberry products are a nonantimicrobial
method for prevention of urinary tract infection
(UTI). Cranberry proanthocyanidin (PAC), a type of condensed tannin, is the active ingredient in cranberry that
inhibits adherence of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli to
uroepithelial cells. Previous cranberry studies for UTI
prevention yielded conflicting results, probably because
of variability of PAC dose and clinical populations studied. In a clinical trial of 300 mL of cranberry juice beverage daily (36 mg PAC), older women (mean age 78.5) had 58% lower odds of having bacteriuria and pyuria than controls, but nursing home residents have difficulty ingesting the volume of juice necessary to prevent bacteriuria. Cranberry capsules are feasible to administer to nursing home residents, but their efficacy has not been demonstrated. In vitro, 36–108 mg of PAC is efficacious at inhibiting bacterial adherence to uroepithelial cells, but the most efficacious dose for older nursing home residents has not been identified. The goal of this study was to identify the optimal dose of cranberry capsules that reduced the incidence of bacteriuria plus pyuria over 1 month.

Urinary Tract Infection Prophylaxis in Children with Neurogenic Bladder with Cranberry Capsules: Randomized Controlled Trial

Posted: July 31, 2012
Authors: Mutlu H, Ekinci Z
Journal: ISRN Pediatr doi: 10.5402/2012/317280

Abstract: Objectives. The aim of this randomized controlled prospective study is to evaluate the efficacy of cranberry capsules for prevention of UTI in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele. Patients and Methods. To be eligible for this study, patients had to be diagnosed as neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele, evaluated urodynamically, followed up with clean intermittent catheterization and anticholinergic drugs. Intervention. Six months of treatment with placebo; after a week of wash-out period treatment of cranberry extract tablets (1 capsule/day) for an additional 6 months. Randomization was performed sequentially. Patients and care givers were blinded to drug assignment. Main outcome measure was infection rate. Group comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon test. Results. The study population included 20 (F/M: 13/7) patients with neurogenic bladder with the mean age of 7.25 ± 3.49 (4, 18) years. The median UTI rate was 0.5/year during placebo usage whereas 0/year during cranberry capsule usage. Decrease in infection rate was significant with cranberry capsule usage (P = 0.012). Decrease in the percentage of the pyuria was also recorded as significant (P = 0.000). Any adverse events or side effects were not recorded. Conclusion. We concluded that cranberry capsules could be an encouraging option for the prevention of recurrent UTI in children with neurogenic bladder caused by myelomeningocele.

A Randomised Double-blind Placebo-controlled Trial to Determine the Effect of Cranberry Juice on Decreasing the Incidence of Urinary Symptoms and Urinary Tract Infections in Patients Undergoing Radiotheraphy for Cancer of the Bladder or Cervix.

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Cowan CC, Hutchison C, Cole T, Barry SJ, Paul J, Reed NS, Russell JM
Journal: Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 24(2):e31-8

Abstract: AIMS:
Radical pelvic radiotherapy is one of the main treatment modalities for cancers of the bladder and cervix. The side-effects of pelvic radiotherapy include urinary symptoms, such as urinary frequency and cystitis. The therapeutic effects of cranberry juice in the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infections in general are well documented. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of cranberry juice on the incidence of urinary tract infections and urinary symptoms in patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy for cancer of the bladder or cervix.
The study was a placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Participants were randomised to receive cranberry juice, twice a day (morning and night) for the duration of their radiotherapy treatment and for 2 weeks after treatment (6 weeks in total) or a placebo beverage, for the same duration.
The incidence of increased urinary symptoms or urinary tract infections was 82.5% on cranberry and 89.3% on placebo (P=0.240, adjusted odds ratio [cranberry/placebo] 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.14-1.63).
The power of the study to detect differences was limited by the below target sample size and poor compliance. Further research is recommended, taking cognisance of the factors contributing to the limitations of this study.

Biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine after consumption of cranberry-lingonberry juice

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Tapiainen T, Jauhiainen H, Jaakola L, Salo J, Sevander J, Ikäheimo I, Pirttilä AM, Hohtola A, Uhari M
Journal: Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31(5):655-62

Abstract: Cranberry-lingonberry juice (CLJ) was effective in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in our earlier randomized clinical trial. We aimed to test whether consumption of CLJ at a similar dose to earlier reduces the biofilm formation and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli in urine. Twenty healthy women drank 100 ml of CLJ daily for two weeks. Urine samples were obtained 2–4 hours after the last dose. Control samples were taken after a one-week period without berry consumption. Biofilm formation of 20 E. coli strains was measured at 72 hours by the polystyrene microtitre plate method. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses were performed for selected genes. Four of the 20 clinical strains produced more biofilm in urine after CLJ consumption (P&#8201;<&#8201;0.05) and one produced less. Expression levels of the pga, cpxA, fimA and papF genes did not differ between bacteria grown in control urine and urine obtained after CLJ consumption, except for pga gene expression, which was reduced in one strain after CLJ (P&#8201;=&#8201;0.04). It appears that the effect of CLJ in preventing UTIs is not explained by mechanisms that reduce biofilm formation or the expression of selected virulence genes of Escherichia coli in urine.

Recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary Escherichia coli in women ingesting cranberry juice daily: a randomized controlled trial

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Stapleton AE, Dziura J, Hooton TM, Cox ME, Yarova-Yarovaya Y, Chen S, Gupta K
Journal: Mayo Clin Proc 87(2):143-50

Abstract: OBJECTIVE:
To compare the time to urinary tract infection (UTI) and the rates of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary P-fimbriated Escherichia coli during a 6-month period in women ingesting cranberry vs placebo juice daily.
Premenopausal women with a history of recent UTI were enrolled from November 16, 2005, through December 31, 2008, at 2 centers and randomized to 1 of 3 arms: 4 oz of cranberry juice daily, 8 oz of cranberry juice daily, or placebo juice. Time to UTI (symptoms plus pyuria) was the main outcome. Asymptomatic bacteriuria, adherence, and adverse effects were assessed at monthly visits.
A total of 176 participants were randomized (120 to cranberry juice and 56 to placebo) and followed up for a median of 168 days. The cumulative rate of UTI was 0.29 in the cranberry juice group and 0.37 in the placebo group (P=.82). The adjusted hazard ratio for UTI in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.39; P=.29). The proportion of women with P-fimbriated urinary E coli isolates during the intervention phase was 10 of 23 (43.5%) in the cranberry juice group and 8 of 10 (80.0%) in the placebo group (P=.07). The mean dose adherence was 91.8% and 90.3% in the cranberry juice group vs the placebo group. Minor adverse effects were reported by 24.2% of those in the cranberry juice group and 12.5% in the placebo group (P=.07).
Cranberry juice did not significantly reduce UTI risk compared with placebo. The potential protective effect we observed is consistent with previous studies and warrants confirmation in larger, well-powered studies of women with recurrent UTI. The concurrent reduction in urinary P-fimbriated E coli strains supports the biological plausibility of cranberry activity.
clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00128128.

A Randomized, Double Blind, Controlled, Dose Dependent Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of a Proanthocyanidin Standardized Whole Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) Powder on Infections of the Urinary Tract

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Sengupta K, Alluri K, Golakoti T, Gottumukkala G, Raavi J, Kotchrlakota L, Sigalan S, Dey D, Ghosh S, Chatterjee A
Journal: Curr Bioact Compd 7(1):39-46(8)

Abstract: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) represent a recurrent health problem especially for women. More than 50% of women will suffer from a UTI at least once in their lifetime. Cranberries have long been used for their beneficial effects in preventing symptomatic UTIs in several published studies. However, cranberry products used in these clinical studies do not indicate the amount of active ingredients delivered that help to prevent UTIs. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was designed to understand the impact and safety profile of a standardized cranberry product (Proanthocyanidins Standardized Whole Cranberry Powder,PS-WCP) on reducing the recurrences of symptomatic UTI in culture-positive subjects. A 90- day randomized clinical trial including an untreated control group with a total of 60 female subjects between 18-40 years of age was conducted. Study subjects were randomly selected and assigned to three groups including an untreated control group (n=16), a low dose (500 mg daily, n=21) and a high dose (1000 mg daily, n=23) treatment group. The safety of PSWCP was assessed by evaluation of biochemical and hematological parameters on days 10, 30, 60 and 90 during the study, comparing the values with those at the baseline. Occurrence of UTI at baseline and during the follow-up period was characterized by the presence of symptoms and Escherichia coli in the culture of urine samples. The statistical analysis used was ANOVA. At the end of the 90-day treatment period, no significant changes were observed in the hematological and serum biochemical parameters. At the end of the study, change in the presence of E. coli in the untreated control group was not significant (p=0.7234), whereas, there was significant reduction (p<0.05) in the subjects positive for E. coli in both the high dose and low dose treatment groups, compared to baseline evaluation. Symptomatic relief was also reported in the low and high dose treatment groups, while none was reported by subjects in the untreated control group. In conclusion, PS-WCP was effective in safely reducing the number of E. coli positive subjects at both the 500 mg and 1000 mg dose levels and in ameliorating the symptoms of UTI in these subjects. Therefore, a daily dose of 500 mg or 1000 mg of PS-WCP may be considered as an adjunct to antibiotic prophylactic therapy against recurrent UTIs.

Absorption and excretion of cranberry-derived

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Wang C, Zuo Y, Vinson JA, Deng Y
Journal: Food Chem 132(3):1420–1428

Abstract: Absorption and excretion of twenty cranberry-derived phenolics were studied following the consumption of cranberry juice, sauces, and fruits by healthy human volunteers. Plasma and urine samples were collected and analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was employed for analysing urinary creatinine, which was used as a normalisation agent. Significant increases in the sum of plasma phenolics were observed with different concentration peaks (between 0.5 and 2 h) for individual subjects. Some of the phenolics, such as trans-cinnamic, vanillic, p-coumaric acids, and catechin showed second plasma concentration peaks. All of cranberry-derived phenolics increased significantly in urine samples after the intake of each cranberry product. The high molecular weight quercetin and myricetin, which were abundant in cranberry foodstuffs, were not found in either plasma or urine samples. This study provided the fundamental information for understanding the absorption and excretion of phenolics in the human gastrointestinal system after dietary intake of cranberry products.

Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrences of urinary tract infections

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Salo J, Uhari M, Helminen M, Korppi M, Nieminen T, Pokka T, Kontiokari T
Journal: Clin Infect Dis 54(3):340-6

Abstract: Background.&#8195;Cranberry juice prevents recurrences of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult women. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether cranberry juice is effective in preventing UTI recurrences in children.
Methods. A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was performed in 7 hospitals in Finland. A total of 263 children treated for UTI were randomized to receive either cranberry juice (n = 129) or placebo (n = 134) for 6 months. Eight children were omitted because of protocol violations, leaving 255 children for the final analyses. The children were monitored for 1 year, and their recurrent
UTIs were recorded. Results.&#8195;Twenty children (16%) in the cranberry group and 28 (22%) in the placebo group had at least 1 recurrent UTI (difference, -6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -16 to 4%; P = .21). There were no differences in timing between these first recurrences (P = .32). Episodes of UTI totaled 27 and 47 in the cranberry and placebo groups, respectively, and the UTI incidence density per person-year at risk was 0.16 episodes lower in the cranberry group (95% CI, -.31 to -.01; P = .035). The children in the cranberry group had significantly fewer days on antimicrobials (-6 days per patient-year; 95% CI, -7 to -5; P < .001). Conclusions.&#8195;The intervention did not significantly reduce the number of children who experienced a recurrence of UTI, but it was effective in
reducing the actual number of recurrences and related antimicrobial use.

Oral consumption of cranberry juice cocktail inhibits molecular-scale adhesion of clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Tao YY, Pinzon-Arango PA, Howell AB, Camesano TA
Journal: J Med Food 14: 7/8, 739-745

Abstract: Cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) has been shown to inhibit the formation of biofilm by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. In order to investigate whether the anti-adhesive components could reach the urinary tract after oral consumption of CJC, a volunteer was given 16 oz of either water or CJC. Urine samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after consumption of a single dose. The ability of compounds in the urine to influence bacterial adhesion was tested for six clinical uropathogenic E. coli strains, including four P-fimbriated strains (B37, CFT073, BF1023, and J96) and two strains not expressing P-fimbriae but exhibiting mannose-resistant hemagglutination (B73 and B78). A non-fimbriated strain, HB101, was used as a control. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the adhesion force between a silicon nitride probe and bacteria treated with urine samples. Within 2 hours after CJC consumption, bacteria of the clinical strains treated with the corresponding urine sample demonstrated lower adhesion forces than those treated with urine collected before CJC consumption. The adhesion forces continued decreasing with time after CJC consumption over the 8-hour measurement period. The adhesion forces of bacteria after exposure to urine collected following water consumption did not change. HB101 showed low adhesion forces following both water and CJC consumption, and these did not change over time. The AFM adhesion force measurements were consistent with the results of a hemagglutination assay, confirming that oral consumption of CJC could act against adhesion of uropathogenic E. coli.

Cranberries vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections. A randomized double-blind noninferiority trial in premenopausal women

Posted: January 17, 2012
Authors: Beerepoot MAJ, Riet G, ter Nys S, Wal WM, van der Borgie CAJM, de Reijke TM, de Prins JM, Koeijers J, Verbon A, Stobberingh E, Geerlings SE
Journal: Arch Intern Med 171(14):1270-1278

Abstract: Background: The increasing prevalence of uropathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in cranberries to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Methods: In a double-blind, double-dummy noninferiority trial, 221 premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs were randomized to 12-month prophylaxis use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), 480 mg once daily, or cranberry capsules, 500 mg twice daily. Primary end points were the mean number of symptomatic UTIs over 12 months, the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI, the median time to first UTI, and development of antibiotic resistance in indigenous Escherichia coli. Results: After 12 months, the mean number of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (4.0 vs 1.8; P=.02), and the proportion of patients with at least 1 symptomatic UTI was higher in the cranberry than in the TMP-SMX group (78.2% vs 71.1%). Median time to the first symptomatic UTI was 4 months for the cranberry and 8 months for the TMP-SMX group. After 1 month, in the cranberry group, 23.7% of fecal and 28.1% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant, whereas in the TMP-SMX group, 86.3% of fecal and 90.5% of asymptomatic bacteriuria E. coli isolates were TMP-SMX resistant. Similarly, we found increased resistance rates for trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and ciprofloxacin in these E. coli isolates after 1 month in the TMP-SMX group. After discontinuation of TMP-SMX, resistance reached baseline levels after 3 months. Antibiotic resistance did not increase in the cranberry group. Cranberries and TMP-SMX were equally well tolerated. Conclusion: In premenopausal women, TMP-SMX, 480 mg once daily, is more effective than cranberry capsules, 500 mg twice daily, to prevent recurrent UTIs, at the expense of emerging antibiotic resistance.

Effect of urinary acidifiers on formaldehyde concentration and efficacy with methenamine therapy

Posted: January 18, 2011
Authors: Nahata MC, Cummins BA, McLeod DC, Schondelmeyer SW and Butler R
Journal: Eur J Clin Pharmacol 22(3):281-4

Abstract: Twenty-seven patients with indwelling urinary catheters and chronic bacteriuria were studied for methenamine efficacy. In a crossover fashion, each patient received methenamine mandelate granules 4 g/day alone, with ascorbic acid 4 g/day, and with ascorbic acid 4 g/day plus cranberry cocktail one 1/day. Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and E. coli were the common pathogens. Urinary acidifiers had no significant effect on mean urine pH, however, high urinary formaldehyde concentrations were associated with the use of ascorbic acid. Bacteriocidal formaldehyde levels were more frequently present in patients with acidic urine pH than those with alkaline pH. Although ascorbic acid increased formaldehyde levels, additional cranberry cocktail had no further effect. Despite higher formaldehyde levels, urine culture results were positive in most cases with or without urine acidification. Methenamine therapy may be of limited value in asymptomatic chronic bacteriuric patients with indwelling catheters.

Predictability of methenamine efficacy based on type of urinary pathogen and pH

Posted: January 18, 2011
Authors: Nahata MC, Cummins BA, McLeod DC and Butler R
Journal: J Am Geriatr Soc 29(5):236-9

Abstract: This study involved 27 geriatric patients with asymptomatic chronic bacteriuria; all had indwelling Foley catheters. The treatment regimens (daily oral dosage) were: methenamine mandelate (MM) granules, 4 gm; MM, 4 gm, plus ascorbic acid, 4 gm; and MM, 4 gm, plus ascorbic acid, 4 gm, plus cranberry cocktail, 1 liter--administered according to a cross-over design. Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli were the most common urinary organisms. Proteus organisms were more often found in alkaline than in acidic urines, but the type of pathogen had no influence on urinary pH. Urinary formaldehyde concentration [HCHO] was lower in patients with Proteus infection (17.7 micrograms/ml) than in those with Pseudomonas (21.9 micrograms/ml) or E. coli infection (21.8 micrograms/ml). However, for Proteus infection, [HCHO] was higher in patients receiving MM plus ascorbic acid than in those receiving MM alone. Addition of cranberry cocktail to ascorbic acid did not enhance urinary pH, [HCHO] or methenamine efficacy. Our data suggest that in Foley catheter patients with chronic asymptomatic bacteriuria secondary to Proteus, Pseudomonas or E. coli infection, the type of urinary pathogen or the urinary pH cannot be used to predict the efficacy of methenamine therapy either with or without urinary acidifying agents.

First-time urinary tract infection and sexual behavior

Posted: January 11, 2011
Authors: Foxman B, Geiger AM, Palin K, Gillespie B and Koopman JS.
Journal: Epidemiology 6(2):162-8

Abstract: We studied the relation between sexual and health behaviors of women and first-time urinary tract infection (UTI). The study population was women using a university health service who were unmarried, had no UTI history, and who had engaged in sexual activity at least once. We found 86 cases of UTI, defined as one or more urinary symptoms and ^1,000colony-forming units per ml urine of a known pathogen. We randomly sampled 288 controls from the student body. Vaginal intercourse increased the risk of UTI; this risk was further increased with condom use. After adjusting for vaginal intercourse with other birth control methods and recentness of current sexual partnership, a single sex act with a condom in the past 2 weeks increased UTI risk by 43%. Having a sex partner for less than 1 year vs 1 year or more, after adjustment for frequency of vaginal intercourse and birth control method, was associated with about twice the risk of UTI [odds ratio (OR) = 1.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-3.74].After adjusting for frequency of vaginal intercourse, regular drinking of cranberry juice was protective against UTI (OR =
0.48; 95% CI = 0.19-1.02), whereas drinking carbonated soft
drinks appeared to be associated with increased risk (OR =
2.37; 95% CI = 0.75-7.81). Using deodorant sanitary napkins
or tampons was associated with a slight increase in risk of UTI (OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 0.74-3.06). Blacks had five times
greater risk of UTI than whites after adjusting for frequency of vaginal intercourse (OR = 5.2; 95% CI = 1.89-24.63). We
observed only modest differences in health behavior between racial groups.

Prevention of relapse with the cranberry juice in chronic pelvic pain syndrome

Posted: January 11, 2011
Authors: Park SJ, Yoon HN, Shim BS.
Journal: Korean J Urol 46(1):63-7

Abstract: The treatment of chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is based on antibiotic therapy, but many patients experience a relapse after treatment. Cranberry juice is known for its roles in both the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections. This study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of cranberry juice in the prevention of a relapse after the treatment of CPPS.
Materials and Methods: Fifty patients, diagnosed as CPPS (National Institutes of Health; NIH-catagory IIIa), were included in this study. All the patients had initially been treated with levofloxacin and supportive treatment for 8-12 weeks. After completion of the initial treatment, 26 olunteer patients were recommended to drink 150ml of cranberry juice twice a day, 24 patients, as a control group, received no cranberry juice and all the patients re-evaluated after 3 months. Results: On initial diagnosis, the white blood cell (WBC) count in the high power field (HFP) of expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) and the NIHChronic
Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) in cranberry group were 18.2±3.4 and 23.1±4.4 and those of the control group 16.4±4.8 and 22.4±3.7, respectively. When the medical treatment was ended, the WBC of the EPS and NIH-CPSI in the cranberry group were 2.5±2.1 and 14.1±4.1, and those of the control group were 2.7±1.9 and 13.7±2.1, respectively. After the three month follow-up, the cranberry group showed a WBC of 2.2±2.5 in the EPS and a NIH-CPSI of 12.7±3.9, a slight decrease or similar result compared to the treatment completion period. No patient showed aggravation of symptoms after drinking cranberry juice, whereas five from the control group did. Conclusions: Cranberry juice showed an effect in the prevention of a relapse in CPPS patients, with no adverse effects.

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of cranberry supplements in multiple sclerosis

Posted: December 16, 2010
Authors: McGuinness SD, Krone R, Metz LM, et al
Journal: J Neurosci Nurs 34(1):4-7

Abstract: Cranberry cocktail has been reported to reduce bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women and self-reported urinary tract infection (UTI) in young female undergraduates, but commercially prepared cranberry concentrate supplements have never been evaluated in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with neurogenic bladder. The purpose of this study was to determine whether one 8,000-mg cranberry concentrate supplement daily could prevent UTI in MS participants with bladder symptoms. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled longitudinal trial of cranberry supplement versus placebo with participants who have MS. After informed consent had been obtained from the participants, baseline data were collected and participants were randomized to receive either one cranberry supplement or placebo daily for 6 months. The sample consisted of 135 participants. In the cranberry group 34.6% of participants failed (i.e., developed a UTI) versus 32.4% in the control group (p = .849). Not all cranberry supplements have been found to contain proanthocyanidins, the active ingredient of cranberries. Because there is no way for the consumer to distinguish supplements that contain proanthocyanidins from those that do not, taking juice or whole cranberries may be preferrable.

Cranberry Juice Fails to Prevent Recurrent

Posted: December 12, 2010
Authors: Barbosa-Cesnik C, Brown MB, Buxton M, Zhang L, DeBusscher J,Foxman B
Journal: Clin Infect Dis 52(1):23–30

Abstract: Background. A number of observational studies and a few small or open randomized clinical trials suggest that
the American cranberry may decrease incidence of recurring urinary tract infection (UTI).
Methods. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of cranberry on risk of recurring
UTI among 319 college women presenting with an acute UTI. Participants were followed up until a second UTI or
for 6 months, whichever came first. A UTI was defined on the basis of the combination of symptoms and a urine
culture positive for a known uropathogen. The study was designed to detect a 2-fold difference between treated and
placebo groups, as was detected in unblinded trials. We assumed 30% of participants would experience a UTI during
the follow-up period.
Results. Overall, the recurrence rate was 16.9% (95% confidence interval, 12.8%–21.0%), and the distribution
of the recurrences was similar between study groups, with the active cranberry group presenting a slightly higher
recurrence rate (20.0% vs 14.0%). The presence of urinary symptoms at 3 days, 1–2 weeks, and at >1 month was
similar between study groups, with overall no marked differences.
Conclusions. Among otherwise healthy college women with an acute UTI, those drinking 8 oz of 27% cranberry
juice twice daily did not experience a decrease in the 6-month incidence of a second UTI, compared with those
drinking a placebo.

Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Kinney AB, Blount M.
Journal: Nurs Res 28(5):287-90

Abstract: Twenty-one female and 19 male subjects who had normal physical and laboratory examinations were randomly assigned into four groups of 10 subjects each. Each group was then randomly assigned a number (150, 180, 210, 240) which determined the amount of cranberry juice, in milliliters, members of that group would ingest with each meal during the experimental phase of the study. The study took place over a 12-day period. A one-group before-and-after design was used, with each subject serving as his or her own control. Diet was controlled; menus on days 1 through 6 were repeated on days 7 through 12 with the addition of cranberry juice at each meal. Subjects used nitrazine pH tape to measure the pH of midstream urine at each voiding. There were significant (.01 level) differences in mean urinary pH between each control group and its corresponding experimental group. Anticipated problems with increased number of bowel movements, weight gain, increased voiding frequency, and subject pH measurement inaccuracy did not occur.

Effect of cranberry juice on urinary pH in older adults

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Jackson B, Hicks LE
Journal: Home Healthc Nurse 15(3):198-202

Abstract: Most research suggests that ingestion of cranberry juice may be useful in preventing urinary tract infections. This pilot study examines the effect of drinking moderate amounts of commercially available cranberry juice cocktail on urinary pH in older, institutionalized adults. The results of the study have implications for home care nurses who have similar patients in their case loads.

Effect of cranberry juice on urine

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Kahn HD, Panariello VA, Saeli J, Sampson JR, Schwartz E
Journal: J Am Diet Assoc 51(3):251-4

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to quantitate the effect of cranberry juice ingestion on urinary acidification and calcium excretion, in a diet-controlled situation.

Effect of diet on serum accumulation and renal excretion of aryl acids and secretory activity in normal and uremic man

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Cathcart-Rake W, Porter R, Whittier F, Stein P, Carey M, Grantham J
Journal: Am J Clin Nutr 28(10):1110-5

Abstract: The influence of diet on aryl acid metabolism was determined in normal and azotemic subjects. Aryl acid content of serum and urine was estimated by fluorometry in relation to hippuric acid as a standard (FI-Hipp). Secretory activity, a reflection of the biological potency of aromatic acids in serum and urine, was determined by bioassay. The urinary excretion of FI-Hipp and secretory activity of five normal persons on an ad lib diet was 0.78 and 2.25 mM/day, respectively; similar values were observed in two subjects with chronic renal insufficiency. Subjects were fed prunes and cranberries, since these foods contain abundant quantities of hippurate precursors. Prunes 1.5 g/kg body weight, caused the urinary excretion of both FI-Hipp and secretory activity to increase about tenfold in normal and azotemic subjects. Prune feeding caused the serum levels of FI-Hipp and secretory activity to increase about threefold. Cranberries increased the renal excretion of FI-Hipp and secretory activity as did the ingestion of a beverage containing benzoate as a preservative. On the basis of these studies it is clear that diet is an important determinant of the load of aryl acids for urinary excretion; in patients with renal insufficiency the ingestion of foods containing precursors may cause serum level of biologically active aryl acids to increase strikingly.

New support for a folk remedy: cranberry juice reduces bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Fleet JC
Journal: Nutr Rev 52(5):168-70

Abstract: Cranberry juice has developed a following as a simple, nonpharmacologic means to reduce or treat urinary tract infections, yet the scientific basis for such a claim has been lacking. A new study suggests that bacterial infections (bacteriuria) and associated influx of white blood cells into the urine (pyuria) can be reduced by nearly 50% in elderly women who drink 300 mL of cranberry juice cocktail each day over the course of a 6-month study. The results of this study suggest that consumption of cranberry juice is more effective in treating than preventing bacteriuria and pyuria. Along with earlier reports on the ability of cranberry juice to inhibit bacterial adherence to urinary epithelial cells in cell culture, this new work suggests that drinking cranberry juice each day may be clinically useful. Additional work must be conducted, however, to more completely define the efficacy of cranberry juice.

Novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, might help prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Efros M, Bromberg W, Cossu L, Nakeleski E, Katz AE
Journal: Urology 76(4):841-5

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety, tolerability, maximal tolerated dose, and efficacy of a concentrated cranberry liquid blend, UTI-STAT with Proantinox, in female patients with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs).

METHODS: The study agent was administered orally at 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 mL daily for 12 weeks to women with a history of 2.78 ± 0.73 rUTIs <6 months. Blood and urine samples were collected at baseline and weeks 4 and 12. The women took daily doses of the agent. The primary endpoints were the safety, tolerability, and maximal tolerated dose. The secondary endpoints were the efficacy with regard to rUTI and quality-of-life (QOL) symptoms.

RESULTS: A total of 28 subjects were included in the study. Of these 28 women, the data from 23 were analyzable. The average age was 46.5 ± 12.8 years. The maximal tolerated dose of UTI-STAT was 75 mL/d, and the recommended dose was set at 60 mL/d. The secondary endpoints demonstrated that only 2 (9.1%) of 23 reported a rUTI, a markedly better rate than the historical data. At 12 weeks, the reduction in worry about rUTIs and increased QOL with regard to the physical functioning domain and role limitations from physical health domain, as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study short-form 36-item questionnaire, were significant (P = .0097). A lower American Urological Association Symptom Index indicating greater QOL was also significant (P = .045).

CONCLUSIONS: The novel concentrated cranberry liquid blend showed a good safety profile and tolerability in both pre- and postmenopausal women with history of rUTIs. The secondary endpoints demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing the incidence of rUTI and increasing QOL. Given this evidence, supplementation might be beneficial in the prevention of rUTIs in this population.

The effect of cranberry juice on the presence of bacteria and white blood cells in the urine of elderly women. What is the role of bacterial adhesion?

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Avorn J
Journal: Adv Exp Med Biol 408:185-6


The effect of water, ascorbic acid, and cranberry derived supplementation on human urine and uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber.

Posted: November 17, 2010
Authors: Habash MB, Van der Mei HC, Busscher HJ, Reid G
Journal: Can J Microbiol 45(8):691-4

Abstract: In this study, urine was collected from groups of volunteers following the consumption of water, ascorbic acid, or cranberry supplements. Only ascorbic acid intake consistently produced acidic urine. Photospectroscopy data indicated that increased water consumption produced urine with lower protein content. Surface tension measurements of the collected urine showed that both water and cranberry supplementation consistently produced urine with surface tensions higher than the control or urine collected following ascorbic acid intake. These urine samples were also employed to study uropathogen adhesion to silicone rubber in a parallel plate flow chamber. Urine obtained after ascorbic acid or cranberry supplementation reduced the initial deposition rates and numbers of adherent Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, but not Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Candida albicans. Conversely, urine obtained from subjects with increased water intake vastly increased the initial deposition rates and numbers of adherent E. coli and E. faecalis (P < 0.05).

Efficacy of cranberry in prevention of urinary tract infection in a susceptible pediatric population

Posted: November 16, 2010
Authors: Foda MM, Middlebrook PF, Gatfield CT, Potvin G, Wells G, Schillinger JF
Journal: Can J Urol 2(1):98-102

Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate liquid cranberry products as prophylaxis against bacterial urinary tract infection in a pediatric neuropathic bladder population. Forty cases managed by clean intermittent catheterization with or without pharmacotherapy were enrolled in a randomized single-blind cross-over study. Subjects ingested 15 mL/kg/day of cranberry cocktail or water for six months followed by the reverse for another six months. Initial catheter urine samples and subsequent monthly and interim cultures were obtained. Associated symptoms were recorded along with follow-up attendance/compliance registry. The number of negative culture months to the number of months contributed was tabulated and compared between interventions. Individual, cumulative and antimicrobial subset analysis was performed. Twenty one patients completed the study;12 dropped out for reasons related to the cranberry (taste, caloric load and cost); seven patients dropped out for other reasons (parents too busy, death, no stated reason). Wilcoxon matched-pairs Signed-ranks analysis revealed no difference between intervention periods (2-tailed P=.5566 [whole group]; p=.2845 [antimicrobial subset]) with respect to infection. Fewer infections were observed in nine patients taking cranberry juice and in nine patients given water; no difference was noted in three. Liquid cranberry products, on a daily basis, at the dosage employed, did not have any effect greater than that of water in preventing urinary tract infections in this pediatric neuropathic bladder population.

Cranberry juice consumption may reduce biofilms on uroepithelial cells: pilot study in spinal cord injured patients

Posted: November 15, 2010
Authors: Reid G, Hsiehl J, Potter P, Mighton J, Lam D, Warren D and Stephenson J
Journal: Spinal Cord 39(1):26-30

Abstract: STUDY DESIGN: A pilot study of 15 spinal cord injured patients. Objective: To determine whether alteration of fluid intake and use of cranberry juice altered the bacterial biofilm load in the bladder. SETTING: London, Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Urine samples were collected on day 0 (start of study), on day 7 following each patient taking one glass of water three times daily in addition to normal diet, and on day 15 following each patient taking one glass of cranberry juice thrice daily. One urine sample was sent for culture and a second processed to harvest, examine by light microscopy and Gram stain non-squamous uroepithelial cells to generate bacterial adhesion per 50 cells data. RESULTS: The results showed that cranberry juice intake significantly reduced the biofilm load compared to baseline (P=0.013). This was due to a reduction in adhesion of Gram negative (P=0.054) and Gram positive (P=0.022) bacteria to cells. Water intake did not significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion or biofilm presence. CONCLUSION: The findings provide evidence in support of further, larger clinical trials into the use of functional foods, particularly cranberry juice, to reduce the risk of UTI in a patient population highly susceptible to morbidity and mortality associated with drug resistant uropathogens

Lack of effect of ascorbic acid, hippuric acid, and methenamine (urinary formaldehyde) on the copper-reduction glucose test in geriatric patients

Posted: November 15, 2010
Authors: Nahata MC, McLeod DC
Journal: J Am Geriatr Soc 28(5):230-3

Abstract: Ascorbic acid and hippuric acid (from cranberry juice) are commonly used to acidify the urine for the purpose of enhancing the degradation of therapeutic methenamine mandelate to urinary formaldehyde. A study was made of 27 nondiabetic geriatric patients with indwelling Foley catheters and chronic bacteriuria who were treated with methenamine mandelate (4 gm), ascorbic acid (4 gm), and cranberry cocktail (1 liter) daily. All of 972 urine samples showed formaldehyde in mean concentrations between 14 and 25 microgram/ml. No glucose was found when the urine was tested by the copper-reduction method. In vitro false positive reactions reported in the literature do not appear to be duplicated as an in vivo problem.

A randomised trial of cranberry versus apple juice in the management of urinary symptoms during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

Posted: November 13, 2010
Authors: Campbell G, Pickles T, D'yachkova Y
Journal: Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 15(6):322-8

Abstract: AIMS: The aim of the study was to assess whether the oral intake of cranberry juice cocktail compared with apple juice was associated with a significant difference in urinary symptoms experienced during radical external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twelve men with prostate cancer were randomised to either 354 ml cranberry juice or apple juice a day. Stratification was based on a history of a previous transurethral resection of prostate (TURP yes/no) and baseline International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS < 6 or > or = 6) of urinary symptoms. RESULTS: The maximum IPSS (MRT) and the maximum change in IPSS from baseline (DRT) are used to report the results. We analysed the effects of juice allocation on DRT and MRT using analysis of covariates (ANCOVA). We observed no significant difference for DRT (P = 0.39) or MRT (P = 0.76) related to the consumption of cranberry compared with apple juice. However, we found a significant relationship between the history of a previous TURP and both DRT (P = 0.01) and MRT (P = 0.01). The history of a previous TURP was associated with lower values for both end points. Baseline IPSS was significant for DRT (P = 0.004) and MRT (P < or = 0.001). We found a significant relationship between the baseline IPSS < 6 or > or = 6 cut point on MRT (P < or = 0.001) but not on DRT (P = 0.43). The use of neoadjuvant hormones had no significant effect on DRT (P = 0.64) or MRT (P = 0.76). The use of additional symptomatic medication during the study was not significantly different between the two arms. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows no significant difference in the urinary symptoms experienced during EBRT related to the consumption of cranberry juice compared with apple juice.

Cranberry juice and its impact on peri-stomal skin conditions for urostomy patients

Posted: November 13, 2010
Authors: Tsukada K, Tokunaga K, Iwama T, Mishima Y, Tazawa K, Fujimaki M.
Journal: Ostomy Wound Manage 40(9):60-2, 64, 66-8

Abstract: In urostomy patients, peristomal skin problems are common and may stem from alkaline urine. Cranberry juice appears to acidify urine and has bacteriostatic properties, and is widely recommended for the reduction of urinary tract infections. Therefore, it is hypothesized that drinking cranberry juice might also prevent and/or improve skin complications for urostomy patients. To test this hypothesis, pH measurements of the skin around the stoma and of the urine of 13 urostomy patients were taken before and after instituting a regimen of drinking 160 to 320 g of cranberry juice each day for an average period of six months. Results showed an improvement in skin condition from 6 patients with erythema, maceration or pseudoepithelial hyperplasia at the beginning of the study to 2 patients with maceration or PEH. The average pH of the urine taken from the patients' pouches decreased a statistically significant amount from 8.0 to 7.3 (p = 0.0277), yet unexpectantly, the average pH of the fresh urine increased a statistically significant amount from 5.8 to 6.2 (p = 0.0178). Other results were not statistically significant. The authors conclude that while drinking cranberry juice did not appear to acidify the urine as expected, improvements were still seen in the skin conditions of the study participants, suggesting that drinking cranberry juice does positively impact the incidence of skin complications for these patients.

Dietary supplementation with cranberry concentrate tablets may increase the risk of nephrolithiasis.

Posted: November 13, 2010
Authors: Terris MK, Issa MM, Tacker JR
Journal: Urology 57(1):26-9

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Cranberry juice has been recommended for patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. However, cranberry juice has a moderately high concentration of oxalate, a common component of kidney stones, and should be limited in patients with a history of nephrolithiasis. Cranberry concentrate tablets are currently available at nutrition stores and are sold as promoters of urinary tract health. After one of our patients with a distant history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis developed recurrent stones following self-administration of cranberry concentrate tablets, we sought to investigate the potential lithogenic properties of cranberry supplements.

METHODS: Five healthy volunteers on a normal diet provided 24-hour urine collection for pH, volume, creatinine, oxalate, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, sodium, citrate, magnesium, and potassium. Cranberry tablets were administered to these volunteers at the manufacturer's recommended dosage for 7 days. On the seventh day, a second 24-hour urine collection was obtained.

RESULTS: The urinary oxalate levels in the volunteers significantly increased (P = 0.01) by an average of 43.4% while receiving cranberry tablets. The excretion of potential lithogenic ions calcium, phosphate, and sodium also increased. However, inhibitors of stone formation, magnesium and potassium, rose as well.

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry concentrate tablets are marketed for urinary tract ailments. Physicians and manufacturers of cranberry products should make an effort to educate patients at risk for nephrolithiasis against ingestion of these dietary supplements.

Effect of cranberry juice consumption on urinary stone risk factors

Posted: November 13, 2010
Authors: Gettman MT, Ogan K, Brinkley LJ, Adams-Huet B, Pak CY, Pearle MS
Journal: J Urol 174(2):590-4

Abstract: PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of cranberry juice on urinary stone risk factors.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 12 normal subjects and 12 calcium oxalate stone formers underwent 2, 7-day phases of study in random order while on a controlled metabolic diet. Subjects ingested 1 l of cranberry juice (CBJ) daily in 1 phase and 1 l of deionized water in the other phase. On the last 2 days of each phase 2, 24-hour urine collections and blood samples were obtained for stone risk factors and serum chemistries.

RESULTS: No significant differences were found between normal subjects and stone formers in response to CBJ and, therefore, the groups were combined. CBJ significantly increased urinary calcium (from 154 to 177 mg per day, p =0.0008) and urinary oxalate (from 26.4 to 29.2 mg per day, p =0.04), thereby increasing urinary saturation of calcium oxalate by 18%. Urinary citrate was unchanged and urinary magnesium increased slightly. Urinary pH decreased (from 5.97 to 5.67, p =0.0005), and urinary ammonium, titratable acidity and net acid excretion increased during CBJ ingestion. Urinary uric acid decreased (from 544 to 442 mg per day, p <0.0001) as did serum uric acid. Thus, the urinary saturation of brushite and monosodium urate was reduced by CBJ but the amount of undissociated uric acid increased.

CONCLUSIONS: CBJ exerts a mixed effect on urinary stone forming propensity. It reduces urinary pH likely by providing an acid load and decreases urinary uric acid perhaps by retarding urate synthesis. Overall CBJ increases the risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone formation but decreases the risk of brushite stones.

Effect of cranberry juice on bacteriuria in children with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization

Posted: November 13, 2010
Authors: Schlager TA, Anderson S, Trudell J, Hendley JO
Journal: J Pediatr 135(6):698-702

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of cranberry prophylaxis on rates of bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infection in children with neurogenic bladder receiving clean intermittent catheterization.

DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of 15 children receiving cranberry concentrate or placebo concentrate for 6 months (3 months receiving one concentrate, followed by 3 months of the other). Weekly home visits were made. During each visit, a sample of bladder urine was obtained by intermittent catheterization. Signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection and all medications were recorded, and juice containers were counted.

RESULTS: During consumption of cranberry concentrate, the frequency of bacteriuria remained high. Cultures of 75% (114 of 151) of the 151 samples obtained during consumption of placebo were positive for a pathogen (>/=10(4) colony-forming units/mL) compared with 75% (120 of 160) of the 160 samples obtained during consumption of cranberry concentrate. Escherichia coli remained the most common pathogen during placebo and cranberry periods. Three symptomatic infections each occurred during the placebo and cranberry periods. No significant difference was observed in the acidification of urine in the placebo group versus the cranberry group (median, 5.5 and 6.0, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The frequency of bacteriuria in patients with neurogenic bladder receiving intermittent catheterization is 70%; cranberry concentrate had no effect on bacteriuria in this population.

Efficacy of cranberry juice and ascorbic acid in acidifying the urine in multiple sclerosis subjects

Posted: November 13, 2010
Authors: Schultz A
Journal: J Community Health Nurs 1(3):159-69

Abstract: No abstract - The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of carnberry juice and ascorbic acid in acidifying the urine of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

The effectiveness of dried cranberries ( Vaccinium macrocarpon) in men with lower urinary tract symptoms

Posted: November 13, 2010
Authors: Vidlar A, Vostalova J, Ulrichova J, Student V, Stejskal D, Reichenbach R, Vrbkova J, Ruzicka F, Simanek V.
Journal: Br J Nutr 104(8):1181-9

Abstract: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common condition in older men. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) powder in men at risk of prostate disease with LUTS, elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), negative prostate biopsy and clinically confirmed chronic non-bacterial prostatitis. Forty-two participants received either 1500 mg of the dried powdered cranberries per d for 6 months (cranberry group; n 21) or no cranberry treatment (control group; n 21). Physical examination, International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life (QoL), five-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5), basic clinical chemistry parameters, haematology, Se, testosterone, PSA (free and total), C-reactive protein (CRP), antioxidant status, transrectal ultrasound prostate volume, urinary flow rate, ultrasound-estimated post-void residual urine volume at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months, and urine ex vivo anti-adherence activity were determined in all subjects. In contrast to the control group, patients in the cranberry group had statistically significant improvement in International Prostate Symptom Score, QoL, urination parameters including voiding parameters (rate of urine flow, average flow, total volume and post-void residual urine volume), and lower total PSA level on day 180 of the study. There was no influence on blood testosterone or serum CRP levels. There was no statistically significant improvement in the control group. The results of the present trial are the first firm evidence that cranberries may ameliorate LUTS, independent of benign prostatic hyperplasia or C-reactive protein level.

Effect of blackcurrant-, cranberry- and plum juice consumption on risk factors associated with kidney stone formation.

Posted: November 11, 2010
Authors: Kessler T, Jansen B, Hesse A
Journal: Eur J Clin Nutr 56:1020-3

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of plum-, cranberry- and blackcurrant juice on urinary stone risk factors.

DESIGN: Investigations were carried out in 12 healthy male subjects aged 18-38 y. All subjects received a standardized diet formulated according to the dietary recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition. The subjects provided 24 h urine collections in a control, three loading phases. In each loading phase a neutral mineral water was substituted for 330 ml of the particular juice.

RESULTS: Cranberry juice decreased the urinary pH, whereas the excretion of oxalic acid and the relative supersaturation for uric acid were increased. Blackcurrant juice increased the urinary pH and the excretion of citric acid. The excretion of oxalic acid was increased too. All changes were statistically significant. The plum juice had no significant effect on the urinary composition.

CONCLUSION: It is concluded that blackcurrant juice could support the treatment and metaphylaxis of uric acid stone disease because of its alkalizing effect. Since cranberry juice acidifies urine it could be useful in the treatment of brushite and struvite stones as well as urinary tract infection.

Cranberry juice for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections: a randomized controlled trial in children

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Ferrara P, Romaniello L, Vitelli O, Gatto A, Serva M and Cataldi L
Journal: Scand J Urol Nephrol 43(5):369-72

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effects of daily cranberry juice to those of Lactobacillus in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-four girls aged between 3 and 14 years were randomized to cranberry, Lactobacillus or control in three treatment arms: G1, cranberry juice 50 ml daily (n=28); G2, 100 ml of Lactobacillus GG drink on 5 days a month (n=27); and G3, controls (n=29). The study lasted for 6 months.

RESULTS: Only four subjects withdrew: 1/28 (3.5%) from G1, 1/27 (3.7%) from G2 and 2/29 (6.8%) from G3, because of poor compliance to the established protocol. There were 34 episodes of UTIs in this cohort: 5/27 (18.5%) in G1, 11/26 (42.3%) in G2 and 18/27 (48.1%) in the G3, with at least one episode of infection (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: These data suggest that daily consumption of concentrated cranberry juice can significantly prevent the recurrence of symptomatic UTIs in children.

Daily cranberry juice for the prevention of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a randomized, controlled pilot study

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Preslicka C, Chung JH
Journal: J Urol 27(2):137-42

Abstract: PURPOSE: We compared the effects of daily cranberry juice cocktail to those of placebo during pregnancy on asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections.MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 188 women were randomized to cranberry or placebo in 3 treatment arms of A-cranberry 3 times daily (58), B-cranberry at breakfast then placebo at lunch and dinner (67), and C-placebo 3 times daily (63). After 27.7% (52 of 188) of the subjects were enrolled in the study the dosing regimens were changed to twice daily dosing to improve compliance.RESULTS: There were 27 urinary tract infections in 18 subjects in this cohort, with 6 in 4 group A subjects, 10 in 7 group B subjects and 11 in 7 group C subjects (p = 0.71). There was a 57% and 41% reduction in the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria and all urinary tract infections, respectively, in the multiple daily dosing group. However, this study was not sufficiently powered at the alpha 0.05 level (CI 0.14-1.39 and 0.22-1.60, respectively, incidence rate ratios). Of 188 subjects 73 (38.8%) withdrew, most for gastrointestinal upset.CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest there may be a protective effect of cranberry ingestion against asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy. Further studies are planned to evaluate this effect.

Does drinking cranberry juice produce urine inhibitory to the development of crystalline, catheter-blocking Proteus mirabilis biofilms?.

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Morris NS, Stickler DJ
Journal: BJU Int 88(3):192-7

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To test the recommendation that to avoid the complications of long-term indwelling bladder catheterization (e.g. encrustation and blockage by crystalline Proteus mirabilis biofilms) patients should drink cranberry juice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urine was collected from groups of volunteers who had drunk up to 2 x 500 mL of cranberry juice or water within an 8-h period. Laboratory models of the catheterized bladder were supplied with urine from these groups and inoculated with P. mirabilis. After incubation for 24 or 48 h, the extent of catheter encrustation was determined by chemical analysis for calcium and magnesium. Encrustation was also visualized by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The amounts of calcium and magnesium recovered from catheters incubated in urine pooled from individuals who had drunk 500 mL of cranberry juice was not significantly different from that on catheters incubated in pooled urine from control subjects who had drunk 500 mL of water. However, there was significantly less encrustation (P = 0.007) on catheters from models receiving urine from volunteers who had drunk 2 x 500 mL of water than on catheters incubated in models supplied with urine from volunteers who had drunk 2 x 500 mL of cranberry juice. The amounts of encrustation on these two groups of catheters were also significantly less than that on catheters incubated in models supplied with urine from volunteers who had not supplemented their normal fluid intake. (P < 0.001). Experiments in the models using artificial urine showed that increasing the low fluid intake (720 mL/24 h) characteristic of many patients undergoing long-term catheterization by factors of three and six, significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the amounts of calcium and magnesium that formed on catheters. At a simulated fluid intake of 720 mL/24 h, catheters blocked with encrustation after a mean of 42.5 h, while those supplied with urine produced from an intake of 4320 mL/24 h, drained freely for > 10 days. CONCLUSION: In this in vitro study, drinking cranberry juice did not produce urine that was inhibitory to the development of crystalline catheter-blocking P. mirabilis biofilms. The important factor in preventing catheter encrustation is a high fluid intake.

Effect of cranberry drink on bacterial adhesion in vitro and vaginal microbiota in healthy females

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Jass J and Reid G
Journal: Can J Urol 16(6):4901-7

Abstract: INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE: Cranberries have been shown to produce urinary metabolites that influence uropathogen adhesion and prevent urinary tract infections. This study was designed to determine if consuming reconstituted, unsweetened cranberry drink from extract retained its bioactive properties by reducing uropathogen adhesion without adversely affecting urinary calcium, magnesium and the vaginal microflora. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized crossover study was undertaken in 12 healthy women consuming reconstituted unsweetened cranberry drink, CranActin or water. The urine was collected at 4 hours and 1 week of consumption and evaluated for antiadhesive properties and urinary pH, calcium and magnesium. Vaginal swabs were collected after 1 week of treatment to assess the vaginal microbiota by DGGE. RESULTS: The resultant urine produced by subjects who consumed 500 ml reconstituted cranberry extract twice per day, significantly reduced the adherence to epithelial cells of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli and showed a tendency towards significance for two E. coli strains expressing fimbriae and an Enterococcus faecalis isolate. The cranberry drink treatment did not alter urinary pH, but reduced calcium and magnesium concentrations compared to water, although not to statistical significance. The reconstituted cranberry drink had no apparent detrimental effect on the vaginal microbiota. However, consuming twice daily resulted in an apparent loss of a potential pathogen from the vagina in 42% subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that reconstituted cranberry drink may retain the ability to reduce the risk of UTI by inhibiting pathogen adhesion while not detrimentally affecting urinary pH or vaginal microbiota, or the risk of calculi

Effect of cranberry juice on eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients treated with antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor.

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Shmuely H, Yahav J, Samra Z, Chodick G, Koren R, Niv Y, Ofek I
Journal: Mol Nutr Food Res 51(6):746-51

Abstract: Cranberry constituents are known to exert anti-adhesion activity on H. pylori in vitro. To determine their possible additive effect to triple therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin (OAC), a double-blind randomized clinical study was carried out. One-hundred-seventy-seven patients with H. pylori infection treated with OAC for 1 week were randomly allocated to receive 250 mL of either cranberry juice (cranberry-OAC, n = 89) or placebo beverage (placebo-OAC, n = 88) twice daily and only cranberry juice or placebo beverage for the next 2 weeks. Treatment outcome was determined with the(13)C urea breath test ((13)C-UBT). An additional control group consisted of patients referred to the same center during the same period who were treated with OAC alone for 1 week (non-placebo-OAC, n = 712). Overall, the rate of H. pylori eradication ((13)C-UBT < 3.5) was 82.5%, with no statistically significant difference among the three arms. Analysis by gender revealed that for female subjects, the eradication rate was higher in the cranberry-OAC arm (n = 42, 95.2%) than in the placebo-OAC arm (n = 53, 86.8%) and significantly higher than in the non-placebo-OAC group (n = 425, 80%; p = 0.03). For males, the rate was nonsignificantly lower in the cranberry-OAC arm (n = 35, 73.9%) than in the placebo-OAC arm (n = 45, 80.0%) and non-placebo-OAC group (n = 287, 85.0%). These results suggest that the addition of cranberry to triple therapy improves the rate of H. pylori eradication in females.

Effect of feeding tube properties and three irrigants on clogging rates.

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Metheny N, Eisenberg P and McSweeney M
Journal: Nurs Res 37(3):165-9

Abstract: An experimental study was conducted on 3 consecutive 12-hour days to determine if selected physical properties of feeding tubes (material and diameter) affect tube clogging. Effectiveness of three irrigant fluids (cranberry juice, Coca-Cola, and water) in preventing tube clogging was studied. One hundred eight tubes were connected to gravity flow feeding bags containing isotonic enteral formula; 54 polyurethane and 54 silicone tubes were equally divided as to external diameters of 8 French (Fr), 10 Fr, and 12 Fr. At 4-hour intervals, flow regulators on the feeding bags were adjusted to a rate of 50 ml/hour. Fluid volumes delivered per minute were measured for each tube at 2-hour intervals. One set of tubes at each station was irrigated periodically with cranberry juice, Coca-Cola, or water. On each of the 3 days, analyses revealed significant, p less than .05, effects for tube material, cranberry juice contrasted with Coca-Cola and water as irrigants, and time. Polyurethane was consistently superior to silicone as a tube material, and cranberry juice was consistently inferior to both Coca-Cola and water as an irrigant. Tube diameter had no significant effect on the incidence of tube clogging.

Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment of urinary tract infections

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Sobota AE
Journal: J Urol 131(5):1013-6

Abstract: Cranberry juice has been widely used for the treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections and is reputed to give symptomatic relief from these infections. Attempts to account for the potential benefit derived from the juice have focused on urine acidification and bacteriostasis. In this investigation it is demonstrated that cranberry juice is a potent inhibitor of bacterial adherence. A total of 77 clinical isolates of Escherichia coli were tested. Cranberry juice inhibited adherence by 75 per cent or more in over 60 per cent of the clinical isolates. Cranberry cocktail was also given to mice in the place of their normal water supply for a period of 14 days. Urine collected from these mice inhibited adherence of E. coli to uroepithelial cells by approximately 80 per cent. Antiadherence activity could also be detected in human urine. Fifteen of 22 subjects showed significant antiadherence activity in the urine 1 to 3 hours after drinking 15 ounces of cranberry cocktail. It is concluded that the reported benefits derived from the use of cranberry juice may be related to its ability to inhibit bacterial adherence.

Inhibitory activity of cranberry extract on the bacterial adhesiveness in the urine of women: an ex-vivo study.

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Tempera G, Corsello S, Genovese C, Caruso FE, Nicolosi D
Journal: Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 23(2):611-8.

Abstract: Strains of uropathogenic E. coli are responsible for approximately 90% of community-acquired, uncomplicated cystitis, and fimbriae represent the adhesive factors enabling E. coli to be anchored to uroepithelial cells in the first step of the infectious process. Recently, a few studies have shown that a correlation between the consumption of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and prevention of UTI is related to the ability of proanthocyanidins to reduce the bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells. In this study we evaluate the inhibitory activity of urine of healthy women treated with tablets containing cranberry extract on the adhesiveness of E. coli to uroepithelial human cells. Two groups of 12 female volunteers each, aged between 18 and 65 years, were enrolled, one group with negative history and one group with positive history of recurrent cystitis. Subjects were treated with the active product or placebo in a random, cross-over, double-blinded sequence for one week in each of the two treatment sequences. Urine samples were collected at the beginning and the end of each study period. Tests of bacterial adhesiveness were performed with two strains of E. coli (ATCC 25922 and ATCC 35218) on HT1376 human bladder carcinoma cells. Significant reductions of bacterial adhesiveness were observed in women who received cranberry extract (-50.9%; p less than 0.0001), regardless of their medical history and the treatment period in the cross-over sequence. No changes were observed with placebo (-0.29%; n.s.). This ex-vivo study showed that the assumption of cranberry extract in suitable amounts can have an anti-adhesive activity on uropathogenic E. coli.

Reduction of bacteriuria and pyuria after ingestion of cranberry juice.

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Avorn J, Monane M, Gurwitz JH, Glynn RJ, Choodnovskiy I, Lipsitz LA
Journal: JAMA 271(10):751-754

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of regular intake of cranberry juice beverage on bacteriuria and pyuria in elderly women.

DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

SUBJECTS: Volunteer sample of 153 elderly women (mean age, 78.5 years).

INTERVENTION: Subjects were randomly assigned to consume 300 mL per day of a commercially available standard cranberry beverage or a specially prepared synthetic placebo drink that was indistinguishable in taste, appearance, and vitamin C content but lacked cranberry content.

OUTCOME MEASURES: A baseline urine sample and six clean-voided study urine samples were collected at approximately 1-month intervals and tested quantitatively for bacteriuria and the presence of white blood cells.

RESULTS: Subjects randomized to the cranberry beverage had odds of bacteriuria (defined as organisms numbering > or = 10(5)/mL) with pyuria that were only 42% of the odds in the control group (P = .004). Their odds of remaining bacteriuric-pyuric, given that they were bacteriuric-pyuric in the previous month, were only 27% of the odds in the control group (P = .006).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that use of a cranberry beverage reduces the frequency of bacteriuria with pyuria in older women. Prevalent beliefs about the effects of cranberry juice on the urinary tract may have microbiologic justification.

Urinary ionized calcium in urolithiasis. Effect of cranberry juice.

Posted: November 10, 2010
Authors: Light I, Gursel E, Zinnser HH
Journal: Urology 1(1):67-70

Abstract: Abstract: Urinary ionized calcium was determined by a calcium activity electrode in 32 normal persons and in 54 patients with calcium-containing renal stones and without urinary tract infection. It was found to be 38 per cent higher in patients with calcium-containing renal stone in comparison to normal persons. However, this was not statistically significant. No consistant change in total or ionized calcium excretion was produced in normal volunteers by the administration of as much as 5 pints of cranberry juice. In patients with renal stones, the urinary ionized calcium was reduced during the cranberry juice ingestion by 50 per cent, which was statistically highly significant.

In-vitro and in-vivo evidence of dose-dependent decrease of uropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence after consumption of commercial Vaccinium macrocarpon (cranberry) capsules.

Posted: November 9, 2010
Authors: Lavigne JP, Bourg G, Combescure C, Botto H, Sotto A
Journal: Clin Microbiol Infect 14(4):350-355

Abstract: This study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of the consumption of cranberry capsules vs. placebo in the urine of healthy volunteers. A first double-blind, randomised, crossover trial involved eight volunteers who had followed three regimens, with or without cranberry, with a wash-out period of at least 6 days between each regimen. Twelve hours after consumption of cranberry or placebo hard capsules, the first urine of the morning was collected. Different Escherichia coli strains were cultured in the urine samples. Urinary antibacterial adhesion activity was measured in vitro using the human T24 epithelial cell-line, and in vivo using the Caenorhabditis elegans killing model. With the in-vitro model, 108 mg of cranberry induced a significant reduction in bacterial adherence to T24 cells as compared with placebo (p <0.001). A significant dose-dependent decrease in bacterial adherence in vitro was noted after the consumption of 108 and 36 mg of cranberry (p <0.001). The in-vivo model confirmed that E. coli strains had a reduced ability to kill C. elegans after growth in the urine of patients who consumed cranberry capsules. Overall, these in-vivo and in-vitro studies suggested that consumption of cranberry juice represents an interesting new strategy to prevent recurrent urinary tract infection.

Spinal-injured neuropathic bladder antisepsis (SINBA) trial

Posted: November 9, 2010
Authors: Lee BB, Haran MJ, Hunt LM, Simpson JM, Marial O, Rutkowski SB, Middleton JW, Kotsiou G, Tudehope M, Cameron ID
Journal: Spinal Cord 45(8):542-50

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Methenamine Hippurate (MH) or cranberry tablets prevent urinary tract infections (UTI) in people with neuropathic bladder following spinal cord injury (SCI).

STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind factorial-design randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 2 year recruitment period from November 2000 and 6 month follow-up.

SETTING: In total, 543 eligible predominantly community dwelling patients were invited to participate in the study, of whom 305 (56%) agreed.

METHODS: Eligible participants were people with SCI with neurogenic bladder and stable bladder management. All regimens were indistinguishable in appearance and taste. The dose of MH used was 1 g twice-daily. The dose of cranberry used was 800 mg twice-daily. The main outcome measure was the time to occurrence of a symptomatic UTI.

RESULTS: Multivariate analysis revealed that patients randomized to MH did not have a significantly longer UTI-free period compared to placebo (HR 0.96, 95% CI: 0.68-1.35, P=0.75). Patients randomized to cranberry likewise did not have significantly longer UTI-free period compared to placebo (HR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.67-1.31, P=0.70).

CONCLUSION: There is no benefit in the prevention of UTI from the addition of MH or cranberry tablets to the usual regimen of patients with neuropathic bladder following SCI.

A randomized trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of naturopathic cranberry products as prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in women

Posted: November 8, 2010
Authors: Stothers L
Journal: Can J Urol 9(3):1558-62

Abstract: PURPOSE: To determine, from a societal perspective, the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of concentrated cranberry tablets, versus cranberry juice, versus placebo used as prophylaxis against lower urinary tract infection (UTI) in adult women.MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred fifty sexually active women aged 21 through 72 years were randomized for one year to one of three groups of prophylaxis: placebo juice + placebo tablets versus placebo juice + cranberry tablets, versus cranberry juice + placebo tablets. Tablets were taken twice daily, juice 250 ml three times daily. Outcome measures were: (1) a >50% decrease in symptomatic UTI's per year (symptoms + >or= 100 000 single organisms/ml) and (2) a >50% decrease in annual antibiotic consumption. Cost effectiveness was calculated as dollar cost per urinary tract infection prevented. Stochastic tree decision analytic modeling was used to identify specific clinical scenarios for cost savings.RESULTS: Both cranberry juice and cranberry tablets statistically significantly decreased the number of patients experiencing at least 1 symptomatic UTI/year (to 20% and 18% respectively) compared with placebo (to 32%) (p<0.05). The mean annual cost of prophylaxis was $624 and $1400 for cranberry tablets and juice respectively. Cost savings were greatest when patients experienced >2 symptomatic UTI's per year (assuming 3 days antibiotic coverage) and had >2 days of missed work or required protective undergarments for urgency incontinence. Total antibiotic consumption was less annually in both treatment groups compared with placebo. Cost effectiveness ratios demonstrated cranberry tablets were twice as cost effective as organic juice for prevention.CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry tablets provided the most cost-effective prevention for UTI.

Efficacy of cranberry capsules in prevention of urinary tract infections in postmenopausal women

Posted: November 8, 2010
Authors: Mazokopakis EE
Journal: J Altern Complement Med 15(11):1155

Abstract: No abstract - Purpose: The aim of our correspondence is to submit the results of a small study (the first in a Greek population to our knowledge) about administering cranberries in the form of capsules to healthy postmenopausal women with recurrent UTIs.

Evaluation of cranberry supplement for reduction of urinary tract infections in individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to spinal cord injury. A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study

Posted: November 8, 2010
Authors: Linsenmeyer TA, Harrison B, Oakley A, Kirshblum S, Stock JA, Millis SR
Journal: J Spinal Cord Med 27(1):29-34

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of cranberry supplement at preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: A prospective, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study.

PARTICIPANTS: 21 individuals with neurogenic bladders secondary to SCI.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Favorable or unfavorable response of cranberry supplement vs placebo on urinary bacterial counts and white blood cell (WBC) counts and the combination of bacterial and WBC counts.

METHODS: Individuals with neurogenic bladders due to SCI were recruited and randomly assigned to standardized 400-mg cranberry tablets or placebo 3 times a day for 4 weeks. After 4 weeks and an additional 1-week ""washout period,"" participants were crossed over to the other group. Participants were seen weekly, during which a urine analysis was obtained. UTI was defined as significant bacterial or yeast colony counts in the urine and elevated WBC counts (WBC count > or = 10 per high power field) in centrifuged urine. Participants with symptomatic infections were treated with appropriate antibiotics for 7 days and restarted on the cranberry tablet/ placebo after a 7-day washout period. Urinary pH between the cranberry and placebo groups was compared weekly. Data were analyzed using the Ezzet and Whitehead's random effect approach.

RESULTS: There was no statistically significant treatment (favorable) effect for cranberry supplement beyond placebo when evaluating the 2 treatment groups for bacterial count, WBC count, or WBC and bacterial counts in combination. Urinary pH did not differ between the placebo and cranberry groups.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry tablets were not found to be effective at changing urinary pH or reducing bacterial counts, urinary WBC counts, or UTIs in individuals with neurogenic bladders. Further long-term studies evaluating specific types of bladder management and UTIs will help to determine whether there is any role for the use of cranberries in individuals with neurogenic bladders.

Influence of cranberry juice on the urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate kidney stone formation

Posted: November 8, 2010
Authors: McHarg T, Rodgers A, Charlton K.
Journal: BJU Int 92(7):765-8

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential influence of cranberry juice on urinary biochemical and physicochemical risk factors associated with the formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones, as this product might affect the chemical composition of urine.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Urinary variables were assessed in a randomized cross-over trial in 20 South African men (students) with no previous history of kidney stones. The first group of 10 subjects drank 500 mL of cranberry juice diluted with 1500 mL tap water for 2 weeks, while the second group drank 2000 mL of tap water for the same period. This was followed by a 2-week 'washout' period before the two groups crossed over. During the experimental phase subjects kept a 3-day food diary to assess their dietary and fluid intakes; 24-h urine samples were collected at baseline and on day 14 of the trial periods, and analysed using modern laboratory techniques. Urine analysis data were used to calculate the relative urinary supersaturations of calcium oxalate, uric acid and calcium phosphate. Data were assessed statistically by analysis of variance.

RESULTS: The ingestion of cranberry juice significantly and uniquely altered three key urinary risk factors. Oxalate and phosphate excretion decreased while citrate excretion increased. In addition, there was a decrease in the relative supersaturation of calcium oxalate, which tended to be significantly lower than that induced by water alone.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry juice has antilithogenic properties and, as such, deserves consideration as a conservative therapeutic protocol in managing calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Risk factors for recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in women receiving maintenance antifungal therapy: results of a prospective cohort study.

Posted: November 7, 2010
Authors: Patel DA, Gillespie B, Sobel JD, Leaman D, Nyirjesy P, Weitz MV, Foxman B.
Journal: Am J Obstet Gynecol 190(3):644-53

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine risk factors for symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes among women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (defined as >/=4 vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes in 1 year) who were receiving maintenance antifungal therapy.

STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 65 women aged >/=18 years with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis who attended vaginitis clinics in Detroit, Mich, and Philadelphia, Pa.

RESULTS: The 9-month risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrence was 41.8%. Almost two fifths of the women reported activity limitations because of vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes, most or all of the time. Younger women and those women with a history of bacterial vaginosis were at increased risk of vulvovaginal candidiasis episodes. Behavioral factors that were associated significantly with increasing vulvovaginal candidiasis recurrence >/=2- fold included wearing pantyliners or pantyhose and consuming cranberry juice or acidophilus-containing products.

CONCLUSION: The use of pantyliners or pantyhose, consumption of cranberry juice or acidophil-containing products, a history of bacterial vaginosis, and age <40 years were positively associated with a symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis episode.

Urinary excretion of anthocyanins in humans after cranberry juice ingestion.

Posted: November 7, 2010
Authors: Ohnishi R, Ito H, Kasajima N, Kaneda M, Kariyama R, Kumon H, Hatano T, Yoshida T
Journal: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70(7):1681-7

Abstract: Cranberry, which is rich in polyphenols, including anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins, has been found to have various effects beneficial to human health, including prevention of urinary tract infections. These effects have been associated with polyphenols in the fruit. We investigated the excretion of anthocyanins in human urine after ingestion of cranberry juice. Eleven healthy volunteers consumed 200 ml of cranberry juice containing 650.8 microg total anthocyanins. Urine samples were collected within 24 h before and after consumption. Six of 12 anthocyanins identified in cranberry were quantified in human urine by HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS-MS). Among these, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, the second most plentiful anthocyanin in the juice, was found most abundantly in urine within 24 h, corresponding to 41.5 nmol (56.1% of total anthocyanins). The urinary levels of anthocyanins reached a maximum between 3 and 6 h after ingestion, and the recovery of total anthocyanins in the urine over 24 h was estimated to be 5.0% of the amount consumed. This study found high absorption and excretion of cranberry anthocyanins in human urine.

A high molecular mass cranberry constituent reduces mutans streptococci level in saliva and inhibits in vitro adhesion to hydroxyapatite

Posted: November 5, 2010
Authors: Weiss EI, Kozlovsky A, Steinberg D, Lev-Dor R, Bar Ness Greenstein R, Feldman M, Sharon N, Ofek I.
Journal: FEMS Microbiol Lett 232(1):89-92

Abstract: Previous investigations showed that a high molecular mass, non-dialyzable material (NDM) from cranberries inhibits the adhesion of a number of bacterial species and prevents the co-aggregation of many oral bacterial pairs. In the present study we determined the effect of mouthwash supplemented with NDM on oral hygiene. Following 6 weeks of daily usage of cranberry-containing mouthwash by an experimental group (n = 29), we found that salivary mutans streptococci count as well as the total bacterial count were reduced significantly (ANOVA, P < 0.01) compared with those of the control (n = 30) using placebo mouthwash. No change in the plaque and gingival indices was observed. In vitro, the cranberry constituent inhibited the adhesion of Streptococcus sobrinus to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite. The data suggest that the ability to reduce mutans streptococci counts in vivo is due to the anti-adhesion activity of the cranberry constituent.

Effect of cranberry extract on bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with neurogenic bladder secondary to spinal cord injury.

Posted: November 5, 2010
Authors: Waites KB, Canupp KC, Armstrong S, DeVivo MJ
Journal: J Spinal Cord Med 27(1):35-40

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether antibacterial effects of cranberry extract will reduce or eliminate bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI).

DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

PARTICIPANTS: Participants were people with SCI residing in the community who were 1 year or longer postinjury with neurogenic bladder managed by intermittent catheterization or external collection device and a baseline urine culture demonstrating at least 10(5) colonies per milliliter of bacteria.

METHODS: Each participant ingested 2 g of concentrated cranberry juice or placebo in capsule form daily for 6 months. Baseline urinalysis and cultures were performed at the time of the initial clinic visit and monthly for 6 months. Microbiologic data were evaluated using analysis of variance with repeated measures.

RESULTS: Twenty-six persons received cranberry extract and 22 persons received placebo. There were no differences or trends detected between participants and controls with respect to number of urine specimens with bacterial counts of at least 10(4) colonies per milliliter, types and numbers of different bacterial species, numbers of urinary leukocytes, urinary pH, or episodes of symptomatic urinary tract infection.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry extract taken in capsule form did not reduce bacteriuria and pyuria in persons with SCI and cannot be recommended as a means to treat these conditions.

Effect of ingesting cranberry juice on bacterial growth in urine.

Posted: November 5, 2010
Authors: Tong H, Heong S and Chang S
Journal: Am J Health Syst Pharm 63(15):1417-9

Abstract: No abstract - Introduction: Cranberry juice has been shown to have a significant effect in preventing urinary tract infections (UTIs) in a number of clinical trials. This property of cranberry juice has been attributed to an ability to inhibit bacterial adherence to cells and possibly its urine acidification effects. However, cranberry juice’s antibacterial activity in urine remains unknown. Although a preliminary study by Lee et al. found that concentrated cranberry juice has some antibacterial activity, cranberry juice was studied, not the resultant urine samples. Therefore, our study investigated whether cranberry juice has antibacterial effects in urine. We excluded acidification as a possible antibacterial factor.

Biosafety, antioxidant status, and metabolites in urine after consumption of dried cranberry juice in healthy women: a pilot double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

Posted: November 4, 2010
Authors: Valentova K, Stejskal D, Bednar P, Vostalova J, Cíhalík C, Vecerova R, Koukalova D, Kolar M, Reichenbach R, Sknouril L, Ulrichova J, Simanek V
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 55(8):3217-24

Abstract: This study assessed the effect of an 8 week consumption of dried cranberry juice (DCJ) on 65 healthy young women. Basic biochemical and hematological parameters, antioxidant status, presence of metabolites in urine, and urine ex vivo antiadherence activity were determined throughout the trial. A 400 mg amount of DCJ/day had no influence on any parameter tested. A 1200 mg amount of DCJ/day resulted in a statistically significant decrease in serum levels of advanced oxidation protein products. This specific protective effect against oxidative damage of proteins is described here for the first time. Urine samples had an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains, but no increase in urine acidity was noted. Hippuric acid, isomers of salicyluric and dihydroxybenzoic acids, and quercetin glucuronide were identified as the main metabolites. In conclusion, cranberry fruits are effective not only in the prevention of urinary tract infection but also for the prevention of oxidative stress.

Effectiveness of a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) preparation in reducing asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty.

Posted: November 4, 2010
Authors: Botto H, Neuzillet Y
Journal: Scand J Urol Nephrol 44(3):165-8

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Bacteriuria is a usual complication of enterocystoplasty following cystectomy. Cranberry products may decrease the number of urinary tract infections because of a non-dialysable compound, a condensed tannin, the proanthocyanidin (PAC) type A. This study determined the effectiveness of treatment with a cranberry preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A in prevention of repeated bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between November 2004 and November 2009, a controlled study was open to patients seen in consultation for follow-up after a radical cystectomy and ileal cystoplasty. Patients had a history of repeated urinary infection and/or bacteriuria during the pretreatment phase. During the treatment phase, patients received a cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) preparation highly dosed in proanthocyanidin A (36 mg measured by the dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde method), one capsule a day. The primary endpoint was the absence of bacteria in urine culture. The secondary endpoints were the presence or absence of symptoms (pain, fever), continence status and upper excretory tract enlargement. Each patient was his or her own historical control.

RESULTS: Fifteen patients were included. The median duration of the period without treatment with cranberry compound was 18.5 (1-93) months. The median duration of the period with treatment with cranberry compound was 32.8 (13-60) months. There was a significant decrease in the number of positive urine cultures during cranberry compound treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a cranberry compound seems to be effective in reducing asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with an ileal enterocystoplasty. These results need to be validated by further double-blind randomized studies.

Evaluation of cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infections in spinal cord injured patients with neurogenic bladder.

Posted: November 4, 2010
Authors: Hess MJ, Hess PE, Sullivan MR, Nee M, Yalla SV
Journal: Spinal Cord 46(9):622-6

Abstract: STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial with a crossover design.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cranberry tablets for the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) in spinal cord injured (SCI) patients.

SETTING: Spinal Cord Injury Unit of a Veterans Administration Hospital, MA, USA.

METHODS: Subjects with spinal cord injury and documentation of neurogenic bladder were randomized to receive 6 months of cranberry extract tablet or placebo, followed by the alternate preparation for an additional 6 months. The primary outcome was the incidence of UTI.

RESULTS: Forty-seven subjects completed the trial. We found a reduction in the likelihood of UTI and symptoms for any month while receiving the cranberry tablet (P<0.05 for all). During the cranberry period, 6 subjects had 7 UTI, compared with 16 subjects and 21 UTI in the placebo period (P<0.05 for both number of subjects and incidence). The frequency of UTI was reduced to 0.3 UTI per year vs 1.0 UTI per year while receiving placebo. Subjects with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) greater than 75 ml min(-1) received the most benefit.

CONCLUSION: Cranberry extract tablets should be considered for the prevention of UTI in SCI patients with neurogenic bladder. Patients with a high GFR may receive the most benefit.

The antifungal activity of urine after ingestion of cranberry products.

Posted: November 4, 2010
Authors: Lee YL, Owens J, Thrupp L, Barron S, Shanbrom E, Cesario T, Najm WI
Journal: J Altern Complement Med 15(9):957-8

Abstract: No abstract - Introduction: Cranberry (Vacinicum macrocarpon) is traditionally used in folk medicine for treatment of urinary tract infections. In a recent study, we established that in addition to the antiadhesion effects, concentrated cranberry juice had a direct antimicrobial effect in vitro. We were also able to confirm a direct antimicrobial activity in vitro against a strain of Klebsiella
pneumoniae, in the urine of subjects after ingestion of a commercial cranberry product. While bacteria are the most common cause of urinary tract infections, frequent or prolonged antimicrobial therapy, use of catheters, severely ill patients, high plasma glucose, and invasive procedures can often lead to candiduria. A review of the literature identified one study (Swartz and Medrek 1968), which reported that cranberry juice (40%) in Sabouraud’s dextrose agar had minimal effect on the growth of Candida albicans compared to 0.087% benzoic acid. In this study, we evaluate the anti-Candida activity of urine specimens after ingestion of cranberry.

Can a concentrated cranberry extract prevent recurrent urinary tract infections in women? A pilot study.

Posted: November 2, 2010
Authors: Bailey DT, Dalton C, Joseph Daugherty F, Tempesta MS
Journal: Phytomedicine 14(4):237-41

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are extremely prevalent and despite treatment with antibiotics, reoccurrences are common causing frustration in the patient and the potential for developing antibiotic resistance. The use of cranberry products to prevent UTIs has recently become popular and more clinical studies are needed to explore this use.

OBJECTIVE: This open label pilot study examined the ability of a concentrated cranberry preparation to prevent UTIs in women with a history of recurrent infections.

SUBJECTS: Women between the ages of 25 and 70 years old were included with a history of a minimum of 6 UTIs in the proceeding year.

INTERVENTION: The women took one capsule twice daily for 12 weeks containing 200 mg of a concentrated cranberry extract standardized to 30% phenolics.

DESIGN: A questionnaire was used initially to determine the patient's medical history and they were asked at monthly intervals if any of the information had changed. All of the women in the study had urinalysis within 24h before starting on the study preparation and once a month after that for 4 months. Subjects were followed-up approximately 2 years later.

RESULTS: All 12 subjects participated in the 12-week study and were available for follow up 2 years later. During the study none of the women had a UTI. No adverse events were reported. Two years later, eight of the women who continue to take cranberry, continue to be free from UTIs.

CONCLUSION: A cranberry preparation with a high phenolic content may completely prevent UTIs in women who are subject to recurrent infections.

PMID: 17296290 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Can cranberry juice be a substitute for cefaclor prophylaxis in children with vesicoureteral reflux?

Posted: November 2, 2010
Authors: Nishizaki N, Someya T, Hirano D, Fujinaga S, Ohtomo Y, Shimizu T and Kaneko K
Journal: Pediatr Int 51(3):433-4

Abstract: No abstract - Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common childhood infection. In 30–50% of children with UTI the infections occur recurrently, especially in those with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), resulting in hospitalizations, and long-term health problems, such as renal scars, hypertension, and end-stage renal disease. To reduce the likelihood of recurrent UTI for children with VUR, antibiotics prophylaxis has been regarded as the therapeutic standard for many years. However, the disadvantage of long-term antibiotic therapy is the potential for development of resistant organisms in the host.

Although cranberry juice prophylaxis was found to reduce the frequency of bacteriuria with pyuria in older women, no studies have yet been reported in the literature on children with VUR. The purpose of this study was to examine whether cranberry juice can be substituted for antibiotic prophylaxis in the prevention of UTI in children with VUR.

Increased salicylate concentrations in urine of human volunteers after consumption of cranberry juice.

Posted: November 2, 2010
Authors: Duthie GG, Kyle JA, Jenkinson AM, Duthie SJ, Baxter GJ, Paterson JR
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 53(8):2897-2900

Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess whether regular consumption of cranberry juice results in elevations in urinary salicylate concentrations in persons not taking salicylate drugs. Two groups of healthy female subjects (11/group) matched for age, weight, and height consumed 250 mL of either cranberry juice or a placebo solution three times a day (i.e., 750 mL/day) for 2 weeks. At weekly intervals, salicylic acid and salicyluric acid (the major urinary metabolite of salicylic acid) concentrations were determined in urine by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Concentrations of salicylic acid in plasma were also determined. Consumption of cranberry juice was associated with a marked increase (p < 0.001) of salicyluric and salicylic acids in urine within 1 week of the intervention. After 2 weeks, there was also a small but significant (p < 0.05) increase in salicylic acid in plasma. The regular consumption of cranberry juice results in the increased absorption of salicylic acid, an anti-inflammatory compound that may benefit health.

Consumption of sweetened dried cranberries versus unsweetened raisins for inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion in human urine: a pilot study

Posted: November 1, 2010
Authors: Greenberg JA, Newmann SJ and Howell AB
Journal: J Altern Complement Med 11(5):875-8

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine whether consumption of sweetened dried cranberries elicits urinary anti-adherence properties against Escherichia coli as previously demonstrated with cranberry juice and/or sweetened cranberry juice cocktail, compared to unsweetened raisins.

DESIGN: Uropathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained from five women with culture-confirmed urinary tract infections (UTIs). Four urine samples were collected from each subject. The first urine sample was collected before any study intervention. The second urine sample was collected 2-5 hours after consumption of one box (42.5 g) of raisins. The third urine sample was collected 5-7 days later. The final urine sample was collected 2-5 hours after consumption of approximately 42.5 g of dried cranberries.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: E. coli isolates were incubated separately in each of the four urine samples collected from the five subjects. Bacteria were harvested from the urine and tested for the ability to prevent adhesion of P-fimbriated E. coli bacteria using a mannose-resistant hemagglutination assay with human red blood cells (A1, Rh+).

RESULTS: Of the urine samples collected after dried cranberry consumption, one demonstrated 50% antiadherence activity, two demonstrated 25% activity, and two did not show any increased activity. None of the control urine samples and none of the postraisin consumption samples demonstrated any inhibitory activity.

CONCLUSIONS: Data from this pilot study on only five subjects suggest that consumption of a single serving of sweetened dried cranberries may elicit bacterial antiadhesion activity in human urine, whereas consumption of a single serving of raisins does not. Further studies are needed to verify the antiadhesion effect of sweetened dried cranberries. In addition, dose-response and pharmacokinetics of the active compounds in the dried cranberries need to be determined. If clinical research is positive, dried cranberries could potentially be a viable alternative to cranberry juice consumption for prevention of UTIs.

Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections? a randomized controlled trial in older women

Posted: November 1, 2010
Authors: McMurdo ME, Argo I, Phillips G, Daly F, Davey P
Journal: J Antimicrob Chemother 63(2):389-95

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of cranberry extract with low-dose trimethoprim in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-seven women with two or more antibiotic-treated UTIs in the previous 12 months were randomized to receive either 500 mg of cranberry extract or 100 mg of trimethoprim for 6 months.

RESULTS: Thirty-nine of 137 participants (28%) had an antibiotic-treated UTI (25 in the cranberry group and 14 in the trimethoprim group); difference in proportions relative risk 1.616 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.79) P = 0.084. The time to first recurrence of UTI was not significantly different between the groups (P = 0.100). The median time to recurrence of UTI was 84.5 days for the cranberry group and 91 days for the trimethoprim group (U = 166, P = 0.479). There were 17/137 (12%) withdrawals from the study, 6/69 (9%) from the cranberry group and 11/68 (16%) from the trimethoprim group (P = 0.205), with a relative risk of withdrawal from the cranberry group of 0.54 (95% CI: 0.19, 1.37).

CONCLUSIONS: Trimethoprim had a very limited advantage over cranberry extract in the prevention of recurrent UTIs in older women and had more adverse effects. Our findings will allow older women with recurrent UTIs to weigh up with their clinicians the inherent attractions of a cheap, natural product like cranberry extract whose use does not carry the risk of antimicrobial resistance or super-infection with Clostridium difficile or fungi.

Dosage effect on uropathogenic escherichia coli anti-adhesion activity in urine following consumption of cranberry powder standardized for proanthocyanidin content: a multicentric randomized double blind study

Posted: November 1, 2010
Authors: Howell AB, Botto H, Combescure C, Blanc-Potard A-B, Gausa L, Matsumoto T, Tenke P, Sotto A, Lavigne JP
Journal: BMC Infect Dis 10:94

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Ingestion of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) has traditionally been utilized for prevention of urinary tract infections. The proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry, in particular the A-type linkages have been implicated as important inhibitors of primarily P-fimbriated E. coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Additional experiments were required to investigate the persistence in urine samples over a broader time period, to determine the most effective dose per day and to determine if the urinary anti-adhesion effect following cranberry is detected within volunteers of different origins.

METHODS: Two separate bioassays (a mannose-resistant hemagglutination assay and an original new human T24 epithelial cell-line assay) have assessed the ex-vivo urinary bacterial anti-adhesion activity on urines samples collected from 32 volunteers from Japan, Hungary, Spain and France in a randomized, double-blind versus placebo study. An in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model was used to evaluate the influence of cranberry regimen on the virulence of E. coli strain.

RESULTS: The results indicated a significant bacterial anti-adhesion activity in urine samples collected from volunteers that consumed cranberry powder compared to placebo (p < 0.001). This inhibition was clearly dose-dependent, prolonged (until 24 h with 72 mg of PAC) and increasing with the amount of PAC equivalents consumed in each cranberry powder regimen. An in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans model showed that cranberry acted against bacterial virulence: E. coli strain presented a reduced ability to kill worms after a growth in urines samples of patients who took cranberry capsules. This effect is particularly important with the regimen of 72 mg of PAC.

CONCLUSIONS: Administration of PAC-standardized cranberry powder at dosages containing 72 mg of PAC per day may offer some protection against bacterial adhesion and virulence in the urinary tract. This effect may offer a nyctohemeral protection.

Predictors of urinary tract infection after menopause: a prospective study

Posted: November 1, 2010
Authors: Jackson SL, Boyko EJ, Scholes D, Abraham L, Gupta K, Fihn SD
Journal: Am J Med 117(12):903-911

Abstract: Purpose: To describe the incidence of and risk factors for acute cystitis among nondiabetic and diabetic postmenopausal women.
Methods:We conducted a population-based, prospective cohort study of 1017 postmenopausal women, aged 55 to 75 years, who were enrolled in a health maintenance organization and followed for 2 years. A wide range of behavioral and physiologic exposures were assessed at baseline interview and follow-up clinic visits; the main outcome measure was microbiologically confirmed acute symptomatic cystitis. Follow-up was 87% at 12 months and 81% at 24 months.
Results:During 1773 person-years of follow-up, 138 symptomatic urinary tract infections occurred (incidence, 0.07 per person-year). Independent predictors of infection included insulin-treated diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 7.0) and a lifetime history of urinary tract infection (HR for six or more infections = 6.9; 95% CI: 3.5 to 13.6). Borderline associations included a history of vaginal estrogen cream use in the last month (HR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.0 to 3.4), a history of kidney stones (HR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0 to 3.7), and asymptomatic bacteriuria at baseline (HR = 1.8; 95% CI: 0.9 to 3.5). Sexual activity, urinary incontinence, parity, postcoital urination, vaginal dryness, use of cranberry juice, vaginal bacterial flora, and postvoid residual bladder volume were not associated with incident acute cystitis after multivariable adjustment.
Conclusion:Insulin-treated diabetes is a potentially modifiable risk factor for incident acute cystitis among postmenopausal women, whereas a lifetime history of urinary tract infection was the strongest predictor. Use of oral or vaginal estrogen was not protective, and a wide range of behavioral and physiologic factors was not associated with acute cystitis episodes in this generally healthy sample.

Cranberry juice and adhesion of antibiotic-resistant uropathogens

Posted: October 31, 2010
Authors: Howell AB and Foxman B
Journal: JAMA 287(23):3082-3

Abstract: No abstract - Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) account for more than 11 million physician visits annually in the United States and have become increasingly resistant to first-line antibiotic therapy. Recent evidence suggests that consumption of cranberry juice beverages is effective at preventing UTIs, although further studies are needed to validate potential treatment effects. While early research focused on a mechanism of urinary acidification, the largest clinical trial to date found no evidence to support this. Recent studies suggest that cranberry proanthocyanidins (condensed tannins) may inhibit P-fimbriated Escherichia coli from adhering to uroepithelial cells, the initial step in development of UTI. The effectiveness of cranberry proanthocyanidins and cranberry beverages against antibiotic-resistant E coli, however, has not been previously tested. We assessed whether consumption of cranberry juice cocktail prevents adhesion of antibiotic-resistant uropathogenic P-fimbriated E coli to the uroepithelium.

Cranberry juice and bacterial colonization in children--a placebo-controlled randomized trial

Posted: October 31, 2010
Authors: Kontiokari T, Salo J, Eerola E and Uhari M
Journal: Clin Nutr 24(6):1065-72

Abstract: BACKGROUND: The cranberry produces antimicrobial compounds such as proanthocyanidines in response to microbial invasion. In vitro it is able to prevent growth, adhesion or biofilm formation of a large number of bacteria, while clinically, cranberry juice has been shown to prevent urinary tract infections (UTI) in women. However, the effect of cranberry on bacterial colonization more widely has not been evaluated. We were interested in studying cranberry juice in children since many children with recurrent UTI need long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis and would benefit from an alternative. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of cranberry juice on nasopharyngeal and colonic bacterial flora, to evaluate how well cranberry juice is accepted by children and to evaluate its effect on infectious diseases and related symptoms. DESIGN: Children (mean age 4.3 years) in day care centers were randomized to receive either cranberry juice (n=171) or a placebo (n=170) for 3 months. Bacterial samples were collected before and after the intervention and analyzed for both respiratory bacterial pathogens and enteric fatty acid composition, reflecting changes in the colonic bacterial flora. Infectious diseases and their symptoms were monitored using symptom diaries. Compliance was evaluated as the number of drop-outs during the trial and by counting the numbers of doses taken. RESULTS: The carriage of respiratory bacteria did not change significantly during the intervention, while fecal fatty acid composition changed significantly with time (P<0.001) but did not differ between the groups (P>0.05). Cranberry juice had no effect on common infectious diseases or their symptoms. The cranberry juice was well accepted: the number of drop-outs in 3 months was 18 (11%) in the cranberry group and 11 (7%) in the placebo group, and most of the doses were taken as instructed, 145 (88%) and 129 (77%) children, respectively, taking at least 90% of the doses. CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry juice was well accepted by the children, but led to no change in either the bacterial flora in the nasopharynx or the bacterial fatty acid composition of stools. Thus cranberries seem to have beneficial effect on urinary health only and this is not compromised by other unexpected antimicrobial effects.

Does ingestion of cranberry juice reduce symptomatic urinary tract infections in older people in hospital? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Posted: October 31, 2010
Authors: McMurdo ME, Bissett LY, Price RJ, Phillips G and Crombie IK
Journal: Age Aging 34(3):256-61

Abstract: Background: cranberry juice is often given to older people in hospital to prevent urinary tract infection (UTI), although
there is little evidence to support its use.
Objective: to assess whether cranberry juice ingestion is effective in reducing UTIs in older people in hospital.
Design: randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.
Setting: Medicine for the Elderly assessment and rehabilitation hospital wards.
Subjects: 376 older patients in hospital.
Methods: participants were randomised to daily ingestion of 300 ml of cranberry juice or matching placebo beverage. The primary outcome was time to onset of first UTI. Secondary outcomes were adherence to beverage drinking, courses of antibiotics prescribed, and organisms responsible for UTIs.
Results: a total of 21/376 (5.6%) participants developed a symptomatic UTI: 14/189 in the placebo group and 7/187 in the cranberry juice group. These between-group differences were not significant, relative risk (RR) 0.51 [95% CI 0.21–1.22, P = 0.122). Although there were significantly fewer infections with Escherichia coli in the cranberry group (13 versus 4) RR 0.31 [95% CI 0.10–0.94, P =0.027], this should be interpreted with caution as it was a secondary outcome.
Conclusion: despite having the largest sample size of any clinical trial yet to have examined the effect of cranberry juice ingestion, the actual infection rate observed was lower than anticipated, making the study underpowered. This study has confirmed the acceptability of cranberry juice to older people. Larger trials are now required to determine whether it is effective in reducing UTIs in older hospital patients.

Modulation of Helicobacter pylori colonization with cranberry juice and Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 in children

Posted: October 31, 2010
Authors: Gotteland M, Andrews M, Toledo M, Munoz L, Caceres P, Anziani A, Wittig E, Speisky H, Salazar G.
Journal: Nutrition 24(5):421-426

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Probiotics and cranberry have been shown to inhibit Helicobacter pylori in vitro owing to bacteriocin production and high levels of proanthocyanidins, respectively. These effects have been confirmed in clinical trials with H. pylori-positive subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether regular intake of cranberry juice and the probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii La1 (La1) may result in an additive or synergistic inhibition of H. pylori in colonized children.METHODS: A multicentric, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in 295 asymptomatic children (6-16 y of age) who tested positive for H. pylori by (13)C-urea breath test (UBT). Subjects were allocated in four groups: cranberry juice/La1 (CB/La1), placebo juice/La1 (La1), cranberry juice/heat-killed La1 (CB), and placebo juice/heat-killed La1 (control). Cranberry juice (200 mL) and La1 product (80 mL) were given daily for 3 wk, after which a second UBT was carried out. A third UBT was done after a 1-mo washout in those children who tested negative in the second UBT.RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-one children completed the treatment period (dropout 8.1%). Helicobacter pylori eradication rates significantly differed in the four groups: 1.5% in the control group compared with 14.9%, 16.9%, and 22.9% in the La1, CB, and CB/La1 groups, respectively (P < 0.01); the latter group showed a slight but not significant increase when compared with the other treated groups. The third UBT was carried out only in 19 of the 38 children who tested negative in the second UBT and H. pylori was detected in 80% of them.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that regular intake of cranberry juice or La1 may be useful in the management of asymptomatic children colonized by H. pylori; however, no synergistic inhibitory effects on H. pylori colonization were observed when both foodstuffs were simultaneously consumed.

Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women

Posted: October 31, 2010
Authors: Kontiokari T, Sundqvist K, Nuutinen M, Pokka T, Koskela M and Uhari M
Journal: BMJ 322(7302):1571

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine whether recurrences of urinary tract infection can be prevented with cranberry-lingonberry juice or with Lactobacillus GG drink. Design: Open, randomised controlled 12 month follow up trial.

SETTING: Health centres for university students and staff of university hospital.

PARTICIPANTS: 150 women with urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli randomly allocated into three groups. Interventions: 50 ml of cranberry-lingonberry juice concentrate daily for six months or 100 ml of lactobacillus drink five days a week for one year, or no intervention. Main outcome measure: First recurrence of symptomatic urinary tract infection, defined as bacterial growth >/=10(5 )colony forming units/ml in a clean voided midstream urine specimen.

RESULTS: The cumulative rate of first recurrence of urinary tract infection during the 12 month follow up differed significantly between the groups (P=0.048). At six months, eight (16%) women in the cranberry group, 19 (39%) in the lactobacillus group, and 18 (36%) in the control group had had at least one recurrence. This is a 20% reduction in absolute risk in the cranberry group compared with the control group (95% confidence interval 3% to 36%, P=0.023, number needed to treat=5, 95% confidence interval 3 to 34).

CONCLUSION: Regular drinking of cranberry juice but not lactobacillus seems to reduce the recurrence of urinary tract infection.

Reduction of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial bladder cells after consumption of cranberry juice: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial

Posted: October 31, 2010
Authors: Di Martino P, Agniel R, David K, Templer C, Gaillard JL, Denys P, Botto H
Journal: World J Urol 24(1):21-7

Abstract: To determine the efficacy of the consumption of cranberry juice versus placebo with regard to the presence of in vitro bacterial anti-adherence activity in the urine of healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers, 10 men and 10 women, were included. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study. In addition to normal diet, each volunteer received at dinner a single dose of 750 ml of a total drink composed of: (1) 250 ml of the placebo and 500 ml of mineral water, or (2) 750 ml of the placebo, or (3) 250 ml of the cranberry juice and 500 ml of mineral water, or (4) 750 ml of the cranberry juice. Each volunteer took the four regimens successively in a randomly order, with a washout period of at least 6 days between every change in regimen. The first urine of the morning following cranberry or placebo consumption was collected and used to support bacterial growth. Six uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (all expressing type 1 pili; three positive for the gene marker for P-fimbriae papC and three negative for papC), previously isolated from patients with symptomatic urinary tract infections, were grown in urine samples and tested for their ability to adhere to the T24 bladder cell line in vitro. There were no significant differences in the pH or specific gravity between the urine samples collected after cranberry or placebo consumption. We observed a dose dependent significant decrease in bacterial adherence associated with cranberry consumption. Adherence inhibition was observed independently from the presence of genes encoding type P pili and antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Cranberry juice consumption provides significant anti-adherence activity against different E. coli uropathogenic strains in the urine compared with placebo.

Anti-microbial activity of urine after ingestion of cranberry: a pilot study

Posted: October 13, 2010
Authors: Lee YL,Najm WI, Owens J, Thrupp L, Baron S, Shanbrom E, Cesario T
Journal: eCAM 7(2):227–232

Abstract: We explore the anti-microbial activity of urine specimens after the ingestion of a commercial cranberry preparation. Twenty subjects without urinary infection, off antibiotics and all supplements or vitamins were recruited. The study was conducted in two phases: in phase 1, subjects collected the first morning urine prior to ingesting 900mg of cranberry and then at 2, 4 and 6 h. In phase 2, subjects collected urine on 2 consecutive days: on Day 1 no cranberry was ingested (control specimens), on Day 2, cranberry was ingested. The pH of all urine specimens
were adjusted to the same pH as that of the first morning urine specimen. Aliquots of each specimen were independently inoculated with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Candida albicans. After incubation, colony forming units/ml (CFU ml 1) in the control specimen
was compared with CFU ml 1 in specimens collected 2, 4 and 6 h later. Specimens showing 50% reduction in CFU ml 1 were considered as having ‘activity’ against the strains tested. In phase 1, 7/20 (35%) subjects had anti-microbial activity against E. coli, 13/20 (65%) against K. pneumoniae and 9/20 (45%) against C. albicans in specimens collected 2–6 h after ingestion of cranberry. In phase 2, 6/9 (67%) of the subjects had activity against K. pneumoniae. This pilot
study demonstrates weak anti-microbial activity in urine specimens after ingestion of a single dose of commercial cranberry. Anti-microbial activity was noted only against K. pneumoniae 2–6 h after ingestion of the cranberry preparation.