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Cranberry (poly)phenol metabolites correlate with improvements in vascular function: A double-blind, randomized, controlled, dose-response, crossover study

Posted: August 22, 2016
Authors: Rodriguez-Mateos A; Feliciano RP; Boeres A; Weber T; Dos Santos CN; Ventura MR; Heiss C.
Journal: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research. , 2016 May 31

Abstract: SCOPE: Cranberries are rich in potentially bioactive (poly)phenols. The aim of this work was to investigate whether cranberry juice intake can improve vascular function in healthy men in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and to understand which of the circulating (poly)phenol metabolites correlate with vascular effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: A double-blind randomized controlled crossover trial was conducted in 10 healthy males. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), blood pressure, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index were investigated at baseline, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8h post-consumption of cranberry juices containing 409, 787, 1238, 1534, and 1910 mg of total cranberry (poly)phenols (TP), and a control drink. Plasma (poly)phenol metabolites were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF MS using authentic standards. We observed dose-dependent increases in FMD at 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8h with a peak at 4h and maximal effects with juice containing 1238 mg TP. A total of 60 metabolites were quantified in plasma after cranberry consumption. Twelve (poly)phenol metabolites significantly correlated with the increases in FMD, including ferulic and caffeic acid sulfates, quercetin-3-O-s-D-glucuronide and a gamma-valerolactone sulfate. CONCLUSION: (Poly)phenols in cranberry juice can improve vascular function in healthy males and this is linked to the presence of specific newly identified plasma metabolites.

Adult consumers of cranberry juice cocktail have lower C-reactive protein levels compared with nonconsumers.

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Duffey KJ, Sutherland LA
Journal: Nutr Res 35(2):118-26

Abstract: Flavonoids are important bioactive plant constituents found in abundance in berries, including cranberries. Cranberry beverages have been shown to beneficially impact urinary and cardiovascular health in clinical and observational studies, but their association with anthropometric outcomes is unknown. We examined the association between cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) consumption with flavonoid intake, and cardiometabolic and anthropometric outcomes among adults in the US data for adults (>19 years, n = 10334) were drawn from cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey combined 2005-2008 survey. We hypothesized that CJC consumers will have lower anthropometric measures and healthier cardiometabolic profiles, including lower cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP). A CJC consumer (n = 330) was defined as anyone consuming CJC for 2 nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. We used multivariate linear regression models to examine differences in anthropometric and cardiometabolic outcomes comparing CJC consumers to nonconsumers controlling for important confounders. Consumers drank an average 404 mL (14 fl oz) of CJC for 2 days and did not have higher total energy intakes compared with nonconsumers (mean [SD], 2259 [79] vs 2112 [24], respectively). In fully adjusted models, adult CJC consumers had significantly lower levels of CRP (mean [SD], -0.13 [0.05]; P = .015), results that were strengthened after further adjustment for body mass index (mean [SD], -0.98 [0.04]; P = .027). Trends toward lower weights and lower levels of cholesterol did not reach statistical significance. Intake of cranberry polyphenols may play a role in promoting anti-inflammatory markers among CJC consumers, specifically lowering CRP levels

Cranberry juice consumption lowers markers of cardiometabolic risk, including blood pressure and circulating C-reactive protein, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations in adults

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: Novotny JA, Baer DJ, Khoo C, Gebauer SK, Charron CS
Journal: J Nutr 145(6):1185-93

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cardiometabolic risk is the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or stroke, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the potential of low-calorie cranberry juice (LCCJ) to lower cardiometabolic risk.
METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted with controlled diets. Thirty women and 26 men (mean baseline characteristics: 50 y; weight, 79 kg; body mass index, 28 kg/m(2)) completed an 8-wk intervention with LCCJ or a flavor/color/energy-matched placebo beverage. Twice daily volunteers consumed 240 mL of LCCJ or the placebo beverage, containing 173 or 62 mg of phenolic compounds and 6.5 or 7.5 g of total sugar per 240-mL serving, respectively.
RESULTS: Fasting serum triglycerides (TGs) were lower after consuming LCCJ and demonstrated a treatment x baseline interaction such that the participants with higher baseline TG concentrations were more likely to experience a larger treatment effect (1.15 +/- 0.04 mmol/L vs. 1.25 +/- 0.04 mmol/L, respectively; P = 0.027). Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was lower for individuals consuming LCCJ than for individuals consuming the placebo beverage [ln transformed values of 0.522 +/- 0.115 ln(mg/L) vs. 0.997 +/- 0.120 ln(mg/L), P = 0.0054, respectively, and equivalent to 1.69 mg/L vs. 2.71 mg/L back-transformed]. LCCJ lowered diastolic blood pressure (BP) compared with the placebo beverage (69.2 +/- 0.8 mm Hg for LCCJ vs. 71.6 +/- 0.8 mm Hg for placebo; P = 0.048). Fasting plasma glucose was lower (P = 0.03) in the LCCJ group (5.32 +/- 0.03 mmol/L) than in the placebo group (5.42 +/- 0.03 mmol/L), and LCCJ had a beneficial effect on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance for participants with high baseline values (P = 0.035).
CONCLUSION: LCCJ can improve several risk factors of CVD in adults, including circulating TGs, CRP, and glucose, insulin resistance, and diastolic BP. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01295684.

Flavonoids and phenolic acids from cranberry juice are bioavailable and bioactive in healthy older adults

Posted: September 28, 2015
Authors: McKay DL, Chen CY, Zampariello CA, Blumberg JB
Journal: Food Chem 168:233-40

Abstract: Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) are a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals, which likely contribute to their putative health benefits. A single-dose pharmacokinetic trial was conducted in 10 healthy adults 50y to evaluate the acute (24-h) absorption and excretion of flavonoids, phenolic acids and proanthocyanidins (PACs) from a low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (54% juice). Inter-individual variability was observed in the Cmax and Tmax of many of these compounds in both plasma and urine. The sum total concentration of phenolics detected in plasma reached a peak of 34.2mug/ml between 8 and 10h, while in urine this peak was 269.8mug/mg creatinine, and appeared 2-4h earlier. The presence of PAC-A2 dimers in human urine has not previously been reported. After cranberry juice consumption, plasma total antioxidant capacity assessed using ORAC and TAP assays correlated with individual metabolites. Our results show phenolic compounds in cranberry juice are bioavailable and exert antioxidant actions in healthy older adults.

Acute effects of polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds on endothelial function and performance in elite athletes

Posted: February 15, 2014
Authors: Labonté K, Couillard C, Motard-Bélanger A, Paradis M-E, Couture P, Lamarche B
Journal: Sports 1(3):55-68

Abstract: Abstract: We examined how intake of polyphenols modifies brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at rest, and cycling anaerobic performance, in elite athletes. In the first randomized cross-over study, FMD was measured over a three-hour period on two occasions in eight elite male and female athletes after acute consumption of either polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds (600 mg) or a polyphenol-free placebo drink. Consumption of the polyphenol-rich drink led to a significant increase in FMD compared to placebo (p = 0.02), with a peak at 60 min. In a second study, 12 elite male and female athletes completed a three-kilometer time trial (TT) on an ergocycle on two occasions in random order, either after consumption of 800 mg of polyphenols or a placebo. Acute intake of the polyphenol extract had no impact on the three-kilometer time trial completion. However, plasma lactate levels were significantly lower before and after the TT when subjects consumed the polyphenols vs. placebo (p < 0.05). Results suggest that polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds acutely modifies FMD at rest in elite athletes but this does not translate into enhanced cycling anaerobic performance.

Evidence that cranberry juice may improve augmentation index in overweight men.

Posted: September 15, 2013
Authors: Ruel G. Lapointe A. Pomerleau S. Couture P. Lemieux S. Lamarche B. Couillard C.
Journal: Nutr Res 33(1):41-9

Abstract: The stiffening of arteries is a key step in atherogenesis leading to cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that dietary polyphenols may be cardioprotective through possible favorable effects on oxidative stress and vascular function. The present study was undertaken in order to examine the effect of consuming low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (CJC), a source of polyphenols, on arterial stiffness in abdominally obese men. We hypothesize that regular CJC consumption will reduce circulating oxidized low-density lipoproteins concentrations and have a beneficial impact on endothelial function. Thirty-five men (mean age +/- SD: 45 +/- 10 years) were randomly assigned to drink 500 mL CJC/day (27% juice) or 500 mL placebo juice (PJ)/day for 4 weeks in a double-blind crossover design. Augmentation index (AIx), an index of arterial stiffness, was measured by applanation tonometry of the radial artery and the cardiometabolic profile was assessed in each participant before and after each phase of the study. We found no significant difference in AIx changes between men who consumed CJC or PJ for 4 weeks (P = .5820). Furthermore, there was no between-treatment difference in changes in AIx responses to salbutamol (P = .6303) and glyceryl trinitrate (P = .4224). No significant difference was noted in other cardiometabolic variables between men consuming PJ or CJC. However, a significant within group decrease in AIx (mean decrease +/- SE; -14.0 +/- 5.8%, P = .019) was noted following the consumption of 500 mL CJC/day for 4 weeks. Our results indicate that the effect of chronic consumption of CJC on AIx was not significantly different from changes associated with the consumption of PJ. However, the significant within-group decrease in AIx following CJC consumption in abdominally obese men may deserve further investigation.

Polyphenol-rich cranberry juice has a neutral effect on endothelial function but decreases the fraction of osteocalcin-expressing endothelial progenitor cells

Posted: April 30, 2012
Authors: Flammer AJ, Martin EA, Gössl M,Widmer RJ, Lennon RJ, Sexton JA, Loeffler D, Khosla S,Lerman LO, Lerman A
Journal: Eur J Nutr DOI 10.1007/s00394-012-0334-4

Abstract: Purpose Cranberry juice (CJ) contains a remarkably high
concentration of polyphenols, considered to be beneficial for cardiovascular and bone health. The current double-blind, randomized study was designed to test whether daily consumption of double-strength Ocean Spray light CJ (2 9 230 ml) over 4 months has beneficial effects on vascular
function and on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) carrying the osteoblastic marker osteocalcin in particular.
Methods Atotal of 84 participants (49.5 ± 16.2 years)with
peripheral endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk
factors were enrolled in this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial (69 completed the 4-month protocol—32 in the CJ group and 37 in the placebo group, respectively). Vascular responses to reactive hyperemia were measured non-invasively by peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stained for EPC markers, as well as osteocalcin, and counted by flow cytometry. Results Baseline characteristics were similar in bothgroups. The effect of CJ on peripheral endothelial function
and on circulating EPC counts (CD34?/CD133?/KDR?)
did not change during the study. A high percentage of
EPCs expressed osteocalcin (59.4 ± 35.7%). CJ, as compared
to placebo, induced a decrease in the fraction of
EPCs expressing osteocalcin (-8.64 ± 48.98 and
19.13 ± 46.11%, respectively, p = 0.019). Systemic levels
of the adhesion marker ICAM correlated significantly with
the number of EPCs expressing osteocalcin.
Conclusions The study demonstrated that long-term
supplementation of polyphenol-rich CJ did not improve
peripheral endothelial function. However, the decrease in
the fraction of osteocalcin? EPCs suggests a potential
beneficial effect of polyphenol-rich CJ.

Low-energy cranberry juice decreases lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome

Posted: January 26, 2012
Authors: Basu A, Betts NM, Ortiz J, Simmons B, Wu M, Lyons TJ
Journal: Nutr Res 31(3):190-6

Abstract: Cranberries, high in polyphenols, have been associated with several cardiovascular health benefits, although limited clinical trials have been reported to validate these findings. We tested the hypothesis that commercially available low-energy cranberry juice (Ocean Spray Cranberries, Inc, Lakeville-Middleboro, Mass) will decrease surrogate risk factors of cardiovascular disease, such as lipid oxidation, inflammation, and dyslipidemia, in subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, participants identified with metabolic syndrome (n = 15-16/group) were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: cranberry juice (480 mL/day) or placebo (480 mL/day) for 8 weeks. Anthropometrics, blood pressure measurements, dietary analyses, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screen and 8 weeks of the study. Cranberry juice significantly increased plasma antioxidant capacity (1.5 +/- 0.6 to 2.2 +/- 0.4 mumol/L [means +/- SD], P < .05) and decreased oxidized low-density lipoprotein and malondialdehyde (120.4 +/- 31.0 to 80.4 +/- 34.6 U/L and 3.4 +/- 1.1 to 1.7 +/- 0.7 mumol/L, respectively [means +/- SD], P < .05) at 8 weeks vs placebo. However, cranberry juice consumption caused no significant improvements in blood pressure, glucose and lipid profiles, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6. No changes in these parameters were noted in the placebo group. In conclusion, low-energy cranberry juice (2 cups/day) significantly reduces lipid oxidation and increases plasma antioxidant capacity in women with metabolic syndrome. Copyright Copyright 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Effects of cranberry juice consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease

Posted: January 22, 2012
Authors: Dohadwala MM, Holbrook M, Hamburg NM, Shenouda SM, Chung WB, Titas M, Kluge MA, Wang N, Palmisano J, Milbury PE, Blumberg JB, Vita JA
Journal: Am J Clin Nutr 93(5):934-40

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Cranberry juice contains polyphenolic compounds that could improve endothelial function and reduce cardiovascular disease risk.
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease.
DESIGN: We completed an acute pilot study with no placebo (n = 15) and a chronic placebo-controlled crossover study (n = 44) that examined the effects of cranberry juice on vascular function in subjects with coronary artery disease.
RESULTS: In the chronic crossover study, subjects with coronary heart disease consumed a research preparation of double-strength cranberry juice (54% juice, 835 mg total polyphenols, and 94 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo beverage (480 mL/d) for 4 wk each with a 2-wk rest period between beverages. Beverage order was randomly assigned, and participants refrained from consuming other flavonoid-containing beverages during the study. Vascular function was measured before and after each beverage, with follow-up testing >=12 h after consumption of the last beverage. Mean (+/-SD) carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, a measure of central aortic stiffness, decreased after cranberry juice (8.3 +/- 2.3 to 7.8 +/- 2.2 m/s) in contrast with an increase after placebo (8.0 +/- 2.0 to 8.4 +/- 2.8 m/s) (P = 0.003). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, digital pulse amplitude tonometry, blood pressure, and carotid-radial pulse wave velocity did not change. In the uncontrolled pilot study, we observed improved brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (7.7 +/- 2.9% to 8.7 +/- 3.1%, P = 0.01) and digital pulse amplitude tonometry ratio (0.10 +/- 0.12 to 0.23 +/- 0.16, P = 0.001) 4 h after consumption of a single 480-mL portion of cranberry juice.
CONCLUSIONS: Chronic cranberry juice consumption reduced carotid femoral pulse wave velocity-a clinically relevant measure of arterial stiffness. The uncontrolled pilot study suggested an acute benefit; however, no chronic effect on measures of endothelial vasodilator function was found. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00553904.

Effects of blueberry and cranberry juice consumption on the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy female volunteers

Posted: November 15, 2010
Authors: Pedersen CB, Kyle J, Jenkinson AM, Gardner PT, McPhail DB, Duthie GG
Journal: Eur J Clin Nutr 54(5):405-8

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 500 ml of blueberry juice or cranberry juice by healthy female subjects increased plasma phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effects. After an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 500 ml of blueberry juice, cranberry juice or a sucrose solution (control); each volunteer participated on three occasions one week apart, consuming one of the beverages each time. Blood samples were obtained by venipuncture at intervals up to four hours after consumption of the juices. Urine samples were also obtained four hours after consuming the juice. RESULTS: Consumption of cranberry juice resulted in a significant increase in the ability of plasma to reduce potassium nitrosodisulphonate and Fe(III)-2,4, 6-Tri(2-pyridyl)-s-triazine, these measures of antioxidant capacity attaining a maximum after 60-120 min. This corresponded to a 30% increase in vitamin C and a small but significant increase in total phenols in plasma. Consumption of blueberry juice had no such effects. CONCLUSION: The increase in plasma antioxidant capacity following consumption of cranberry juice could mainly be accounted for by an increase in vitamin C rather than phenolics. This also accounted for the lack of an effect of the phenolic-rich but vitamin C-low blueberry juice.

Changes in plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels in men after short-term cranberry juice consumption.

Posted: November 6, 2010
Authors: Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: Metabolism 54(7):856-61

Abstract: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation is closely implicated in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), and thus, reducing LDL susceptibility to oxidation with antoxidants could be of importance in CVD prevention. Flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds found in a large selection of fruits and vegetables, have been characterized as having a strong antioxidant potential, and intake of flavonoid-rich foods has been related to decreased morbidity and mortality from heart disease. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effect of flavonoid-rich cranberry juice supplementation on plasma lipoprotein levels and LDL oxidation. For that purpose, 21 men (age +/- SD, 38 +/- 8 years) were enrolled in a 14-day intervention and instructed to drink cranberry juice 7 mL/kg body weight per day. Physical and metabolic measures including plasma lipid and oxidized LDL (OxLDL) concentrations as well as antioxidant capacity were performed before and after the intervention. At baseline, we found that plasma OxLDL levels were significantly associated with waist circumference ( r = 0.47, P = .0296) as well as plasma triglyceride ( r = 0.68, P = .0007) and apolipoprotein B ( r = 0.91, P < .0001) concentrations. The intervention led to a reduction in plasma OxLDL levels (-9.9% +/- 17.8%, P = .0131) and increase in antioxidant capacity (+6.5% +/- 10.3%, P = .0140). However, no relationship was found between both of these changes ( r = -.01, not significant). The intervention did not result in any improvement of plasma lipoprotein-lipid or inflammatory marker concentrations. Our results show that short-term cranberry juice supplementation is associated with significant increase in plasma antioxidant capacity and reduction in circulating OxLDL concentrations. Although the physiological relevance of our observations needs to be further examined, our study supports the potential role of antioxidant-rich foods in maintaining health and preventing CVD.

Favourable impact of low-calorie cranberry juice consumption on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men

Posted: November 6, 2010
Authors: Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: Br J Nutr 96(2):357-64

Abstract: A low HDL-cholesterol concentration is an independent risk factor for CVD. Studies have suggested that flavonoid consumption may be cardioprotective, and a favourable impact on circulating HDL-cholesterol concentrations has been suggested to partially explain this association. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of consuming increasing daily doses of low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) on the plasma lipid profile of abdominally obese men. For that purpose, thirty men (mean age 51 (SD 10) years) consumed increasing doses of CJC during three successive periods of 4 weeks (125 ml/d, 250 ml/d, 500 ml/d). Before the study and after each phase, we measured changes in physical and metabolic variables. We noted a significant increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration after the consumption of 250 ml CJC/d (+8.6+/-14.0% v. 0 ml CJC/d; P<0.01), an effect that plateaued during the last phase of the study (500 ml CJC/d: +8.1+/-10.0% v. 0 ml CJC/d; P<0.0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that changes in plasma apo A-I (R(2)=48%, P<0.0001) and triacylglycerol (R(2)=16%, P<0.005) concentrations were the only variables significantly contributing to the variation in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration noted in response to the intervention. No variation was observed in total as well as in LDL and VLDL cholesterol. The present results show that daily CJC consumption is associated with an increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in abdominally obese men. We hypothesise that polyphenolic compounds from cranberries may be responsible for this effect, supporting the notion that the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods can be cardioprotective.

Low-calorie cranberry juice supplementation reduces plasma oxidized LDL and cell adhesion molecule concentrations in men.

Posted: November 6, 2010
Authors: Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B, Couillard C
Journal: Br J Nutr 99(2):352-9

Abstract: Elevated circulating concentrations of oxidized LDL (OxLDL) and cell adhesion molecules are considered to be relevant markers of oxidative stress and endothelial activation which are implicated in the development of CVD. On the other hand, it has been suggested that dietary flavonoid consumption may be cardioprotective through possible favourable impacts on LDL particle oxidation and endothelial activation. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of the daily consumption of low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail on plasma OxLDL, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin concentrations in men. Thirty men (mean age 51 (sd 10) years) were recruited and asked to consume increasing daily doses of cranberry juice cocktail (125, 250 and 500 ml/d) over three successive periods of 4 weeks. Plasma OxLDL and adhesion molecule concentrations were measured by ELISA before and after each phase. We noted a significant decrease in plasma OxLDL concentrations following the intervention (P < 0.0001). We also found that plasma ICAM-1 (P < 0.0001) and VCAM-1 (P < 0.05) concentrations decreased significantly during the course of the study. In summary, the present results show that daily cranberry juice cocktail consumption is associated with decreases in plasma OxLDL, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 concentrations in men.

Plasma matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels are reduced following low-calorie cranberry juice supplementation in men

Posted: November 5, 2010
Authors: Ruel G, Pomerleau S, Couture P, Lemieux S, Lamarche B and Couillard C
Journal: J Am Coll Nutr 28(6):694-701

Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, also known as gelatinase B, is implicated in the development of hypertension and atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability to rupture, an important step in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have suggested that flavonoid consumption may be cardioprotective, and its favorable impact on circulating MMP-9 concentrations could partly explain this association. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of consuming increasing daily doses of low-calorie cranberry juice cocktail (CJC) on plasma MMP-9 concentrations of abdominally obese men.
METHODS: Thirty men (mean age +/- SD: 51 +/- 10 years) consumed increasing doses of CJC during 3 successive periods of 4 weeks (weeks 1-4: 125 ml/day, weeks 5-8: 250 ml/day, and weeks 9-12: 500 ml/day). Before the study and after each phase, a series of physical and metabolic variables were measured, including MMP-9.
RESULTS: We found that CJC supplementation significantly decreased plasma MMP-9 concentrations (mean +/- SEM: -36% +/- 9%, p < 0.0005; week 12 vs. baseline) while baseline plasma MMP-9 concentrations strongly correlated with the changes noted over the entire intervention (r = -0.71, p < 0.0001). We also show that the reduction in plasma MMP-9 levels was associated with a change in plasma nitrites/nitrates (NOx) concentration over the entire intervention (r = -0.38, p < 0.05; week 12 vs. baseline). Significant correlations were also noted between changes in plasma MMP-9 levels and those of systolic (r = 0.39, p < 0.05) and diastolic (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) blood pressure during the course of the study (week 12 vs. baseline).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that daily CJC consumption is associated with a decrease in plasma MMP-9 concentrations in abdominally obese men. We hypothesize that polyphenolic compounds from cranberries may be responsible for this effect, supporting the notion that the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods can exert cardioprotective effects.

Cranberries and cranberry products: powerful in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo sources of antioxidants.

Posted: November 4, 2010
Authors: Vinson JA, Bose P, Proch J, Al Kharrat H, Samman N
Journal: J Agric Food Chem 56(14):5884-91

Abstract: Cranberry products and especially cranberry juice (CJ) have been consumed for health reasons primarily due to their effect on urinary tract infections. We investigated the quantity of both free and total (after hydrolysis) phenolic antioxidants in cranberry products using the Folin assay. The order of amount of total polyphenols in cranberry foods on a fresh weight basis was as follows: dried > frozen > sauce > jellied sauce. On a serving size basis for all cranberry products, the order was as follows: frozen > 100% juice > dried > 27% juice > sauce > jellied sauce. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a major source of sugar consumption in the U.S. and contains both glucose and fructose, potential mediators of oxidative stress. We investigated the effect of the consumption of HFCS and ascorbate with CJ antioxidants or without CJ (control) given to 10 normal individuals after an overnight fast. Plasma antioxidant capacity, glucose, triglycerides, and ascorbate were measured 6 times over 7 h after the consumption of a single 240 mL serving of the two different beverages. The control HFCS caused a slight decrease in plasma antioxidant capacity at all time points and thus an oxidative stress in spite of the presence of ascorbate. CJ produced an increase in plasma antioxidant capacity that was significantly greater than control HFCS at all time points. Postprandial triglycerides, due to fructose in the beverages, were mainly responsible for the oxidative stress and were significantly correlated with the oxidative stress as measured by the antioxidant capacity. Cranberries are an excellent source of high quality antioxidants and should be examined in human supplementation studies.

Effect of cranberry extracts on lipid profiles in subjects with Type 2 diabetes

Posted: November 4, 2010
Authors: Lee IT, Chan YC, Lin CW, Lee WJ, Sheu WH
Journal: Diabet Med 25(12):1473-7

Abstract: AIM: To examine the effect of cranberry ingestion on lipid profiles in Type 2 diabetic patients taking oral glucose-lowering drugs.

METHODS: Thirty Type 2 diabetic subjects (16 males and 14 females; mean age 65 +/- 1 years) who were taking oral glucose-lowering medication regularly were enrolled in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Changes in lipid profiles, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), glycaemic control, components of the metabolic syndrome, C-reactive protein (CRP) and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were assessed after cranberry or placebo treatment for 12 weeks.

RESULTS: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased significantly in the cranberry group (from 3.3 +/- 0.2 to 2.9 +/- 0.2 mmol/l, P = 0.005) and the decrease was significantly greater than that in the placebo group (-0.4 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l, P < 0.001). Total cholesterol and total : high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol ratio also decreased significantly (P = 0.020 and 0.044, respectively) in the cranberry group and the reductions were significantly different from those in the placebo group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.032, respectively). However, ox-LDL levels did not change significantly in response to cranberry consumption. Neither fasting glucose nor glycated haemoglobin improved in either group. Changes in components of the metabolic syndrome, UAE and CRP were not significantly different between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry supplements are effective in reducing atherosclerotic cholesterol profiles, including LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels, as well as total : HDL cholesterol ratio, and have a neutral effect on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetic subjects taking oral glucose-lowering agents.

The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers.

Posted: November 2, 2010
Authors: Duthie SJ, Jenkinson AM, Crozier A, Mullen W, Pirie L, Kyle J, Yap LS, Christen P, Duthie GG
Journal: Eur J Nutr 45(2):113-22

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Consumption of fruit and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease and cancer. This has been ascribed in part to antioxidants in these foods inactivating reactive oxygen species involved in initiation or progression of these diseases. Non-nutritive anthocyanins are present in significant amounts in the human diet. However, it is unclear whether they have health benefits in humans.

AIM: To determine whether daily consumption of anthocyanin-rich cranberry juice could alter plasma antioxidant activity and biomarkers of oxidative stress.

METHODS: 20 healthy female volunteers aged 18-40 y were recruited. Subjects consumed 750 ml/day of either cranberry juice or a placebo drink for 2 weeks. Fasted blood and urine samples were obtained over 4 weeks. The total phenol, anthocyanin and catechin content of the supplements and plasma were measured. Anthocyanin glycosides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). Vitamin C, homocysteine (tHcy) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured by HPLC. Total antioxidant ability was determined using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry and by the FRAP assay. Plasma total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured in erythrocytes. Urine was collected for analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA) by HPLC and 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) by ELISA. Endogenous and induced DNA damage were measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) in lymphocytes.

RESULTS: Vitamin C, total phenol, anthocyanin and catechin concentrations and FRAP and ESR values were significantly higher in the cranberry juice compared with the placebo. Cyanidin and peonidin glycosides comprised the major anthocyanin metabolites [peonidin galactoside (29.2%) > cyanidin arabinoside (26.1%) > cyanidin galactoside (21.7%) > peonidin arabinoside (17.5%) > peonidin glucoside (4.1%) > cyanidin glucoside (1.4 %)]. Plasma vitamin C increased significantly (P<0.01) in volunteers consuming cranberry juice. No anthocyanins (plasma) or catechins (plasma or urine) were detectable and plasma total phenols, tHcy,TC,TG,HDL and LDL were unchanged. The antioxidant potential of the plasma, GSH-Px, CAT and SOD activities, and MDA were similar for both groups. Supplementation with cranberry juice did not affect 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine in urine or endogenous or H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in lymphocytes.

CONCLUSIONS: Cranberry juice consumption did not alter blood or cellular antioxidant status or several biomarkers of lipid status pertinent to heart disease. Similarly, cranberry juice had no effect on basal or induced oxidative DNA damage. These results show the importance of distinguishing between the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of dietary anthocyanins in relation to human health.

A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the neuropsychologic efficacy of cranberry juice in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: pilot study findings

Posted: October 31, 2010
Authors: Crews WD Jr, Harrison DW, Griffin ML, Addison K, Yount AM, Giovenco MA and Hazell J.
Journal: J Altern Complement Med 11(2):305-9

Abstract: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this research was to conduct the first known clinical trial of the short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) efficacy of cranberry juice on the neuropsychologic functioning of cognitively intact older adults.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty (50) community-dwelling, cognitively intact volunteers, > or = 60 years old, who reported no history of dementia or significant neurocognitive impairments, participated in this study.DESIGN: A 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group, clinical trial was utilized. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 32 ounces/day of a beverage containing 27% cranberry juice per volume (n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for 6 weeks, and administered a series of neuropsychologic tests at both pretreatment baseline and again after 6 weeks of either cranberry juice or placebo treatment to assess treatment-related changes.OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy measures consisted of participants' raw scores on the following standardized neuropsychologic tests: Selective Reminding Test, Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces I and Faces II subtests, Trail Making Test (Parts A and B), Stroop Color and Word Test, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- III Digit Symbol-Coding subtest. A subjective Follow-up Self-report Questionnaire was also administered to participants at the conclusion of the end-of-treatment phase assessments.RESULTS: Two-factor, mixed analyses of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant group (cranberry juice and placebo) by trial (pretreatment baseline and end-of-treatment assessments) interactions across all of the neuropsychologic tests and measures utilized in this study when a Bonferroni corrected alpha level was used to correct for multiple comparisons (i.e., .05/17 group by trial comparisons = .003). Pearson Chi-Square analyses of the groups' self-reported changes over the 6-week treatment phase in their abilities to remember, thinking processes, moods, energy levels, and overall health on the Follow-up Self-report Questionnaire revealed no significant relationships. However, a nonsignificant trend (X2(1) = 2.373, p = 0.123) was noted for participants' self-reported overall abilities to remember from pretreatment baseline to the end-of-treatment assessment. Specifically, more than twice as many participants in the cranberry group (n = 9, 37.5%) rated their overall abilities to remember by treatment end as "improved" as compared to placebo controls (n = 4, 17.4%).CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, no significant interactions were found between the cranberry and placebo groups and their pretreatment baseline and end-of-treatment phase (after 6 weeks) standardized neuropsychologic assessments. A nonsignificant trend was noted, however, on a subjective, self-report questionnaire where twice as many participants in the cranberry group rated their overall abilities to remember by treatment end as "improved" compared to placebo controls.

Comparison of urinary cytokines after ingestion of cranberry juice cocktail in pregnant subjects: a pilot study.

Posted: October 31, 2010
Authors: Wing DA, Rumney PJ, Leu SY, Zaldivar F
Journal: Am J Perinatol 27(2):137-42

Abstract: Our objective was to evaluate urinary cytokine excretion after daily cranberry or placebo exposure in pregnant women. Four-hour urine samples were collected from 27 pregnant women subjects who were randomized to cranberry juice cocktail or placebo in three treatment arms: A: Cranberry (C) two times daily (C, C; n = 10 pregnant); B: cranberry in the AM, then placebo (P) in the PM (C, P; n = 9 pregnant); and C: placebo two times daily (P, P; n = 8 pregnant). Urinary cytokines were measured using commercially available kits. There was a statistically significant difference in interleukin (IL)-6 of the urinary cytokines between the multiple daily cranberry dosing group (group A [C, C]): median, 3.16 (range, 0.01 to 7.34) and the placebo group (group C [P, P]): 9.32 (0.53 to 29.61 pg/mL; p = 0.038, Kruskal-Wallis test). We concluded that a difference in IL-6 was found in the multiple daily cranberry dosing groups compared with placebo. Lack of differences based on treatment allocation in the other cytokines may be due to beta error. Further studies are planned to evaluate these assays for the assessment of clinical effect.